Effect of CSN1S1 genotype and its interaction with diet energy level on milk production and quality in Girgentana goats fed ad libitum

Dipartimento di Scienze Agronomiche, Agrochimiche e delle Produzioni Animali (DACPA), University of Catania, Via Valdisavoia 5 95123 Catania, Italy.
Journal of Dairy Research (Impact Factor: 1.6). 05/2010; 77(2):245-51. DOI: 10.1017/S0022029910000129
Source: PubMed


A study was carried out to evaluate how the energy level of the diet can affect milk production and quality in Girgentana lactating goats in relation to polymorphism at the alphas1-casein (CSN1S1) genotype locus. Twenty-seven goats, homogeneous for milk production (1.5+/-0.3 kg/d), days of lactation (90+/-10 d) and body weight (35.8+/-5.5 kg) were selected on the basis of their CSN1S1 genotype, as follows: nine goats homozygous for strong (AA) alleles, nine goats homozygous for weak alleles (FF) and nine goats heterozygous (AF). The goats were used in a 3x3 factorial arrangement of treatments, with three genotypes (AA, FF, AF) and three diets at different energy levels (100%, 65% and 30% of hay inclusion). The experiment consisted of three simultaneous 3x3 Latin squares for the three genotypes, with one square for each level of hay inclusion in the diet. All the animals were housed in individual pens. Each experimental period lasted 23 d and consisted of 15 d for adaptation and 8 d for data and sample collection, during which the goats received the scheduled diet ad libitum. The animals were fed three different diets designed to have the same crude protein content (about 15%) but different energy levels: a pelleted alfalfa hay (H100) and two feeds including 65% (H65) and 30% (H30) of alfalfa hay (respectively 1099, 1386 and 1590 kcal NE for lactation/kg DM). All the diets were ground and pelleted (6 mm diameter). AA goats were more productive than AF and FF goats (respectively: 1419 v. 1145 and 1014 g/d; P=0.002). Indeed the interaction energy levelxgenotype was significant (P=0.018): in fact AA goats showed their milk increase only when fed with concentrates. Differences in protein and in casein levels between the three genotypes were in line with results expected from the different allele contribution to alphas1-casein synthesis. Milk urea levels were significantly lower in AA goats compared with AF and FF genotypes (respectively 32.7 v. 40.4 and 40.4 mg/dl; P=0.049) and significantly lower when goats were fed with 65H and 30H diets than with 100H diet (respectively 37.4 and 34.3 v. 41.7 mg/dl; P<0.001). Indeed, a significant interaction genotypexdiet (P=0.043) occurred for milk urea, which was significantly lower in AA goats but only when fed with concentrates (65H and 30H). Blood concentrations of energy indicators (glucose, non-esterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyric acid) were not influenced by genotype. The results confirm that strong alleles are associated with a greater efficiency of feed utilization and seem to show that a high energy level of the diet can further improve this efficiency.

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    • "Schmidely et al. (1997) reported different values, even though not statistically significant, for different α S1 -CN genotypes (EE > FF > AA) and different diets (12% > 16% > 20% CP/DM) on plasma urea levels. Conversely, Pagano et al. (2010a) did not find an effect of CSN1S1 genotype on blood urea in goats fed iso-protein content diets. The CSN1S1 genotype and diet did not influence the amount of insulin in the blood, in agreement with results found by Schmidely et al. (1997) comparing the AA and FF genotypes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Polymorphism at the αS1-casein locus (CSN1S1) in goats influences several milk production traits. Milk from goats carrying strong alleles, which are associated with high αS1-casein (αS1-CN) synthesis, has higher fat and casein contents, longer coagulation time and higher curd firmness than milk from goats with weak alleles linked to low αS1-CN content. Nutrition also affects these milk properties; therefore, it is important to better understand the interaction between dietary characteristics and the CSN1S1 genotype in goats. This study aimed to investigate the effect of fresh forage based diet or energy supplement on feeding behavior, milk production, and metabolic and hormonal parameters of Girgentana goats with different genotypes at CSN1S1 loci. From a group of goats genotyped by PCR at the DNA level, 12 were selected because they had the same genotype for αS2-CN, β-CN, and κ-CN but a different genotype for αS1-CN: 6 were homozygous for strong alleles at the CSN1S1 loci (AA) and 6 were heterozygous for a weak allele (AF). Goats of each genotype were allocated to 3 subgroups and fed 3 diets ad libitum in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. The diets were sulla (Hedysarum coronarium L.) fresh forage, sulla fresh forage plus 800 g/d of barley meal (SFB), and mixed hay plus 800 g/d of barley meal (MHB). Diet had a stronger effect than CSN1S1 genotype. The SFB diet led to the highest energy intake, dry matter (DM) digestibility, and milk yield. The fresh forage diets (SFF and SFB) increased DM and crude protein (CP) intake, CP digestibility, and milk CN compared with the MHB diet. The diets supplemented with energy (SFB, MHB) reduced milk fat and urea, improved CP utilization for casein synthesis, and limited body fat mobilization, in accordance with a lower level of nonesterified fatty acids and higher levels of glucose and IGF-1. With regard to CSN1S1 genotype, AA goats showed higher CP digestibility and lower free thyroxine hormone and cholesterol levels than AF goats. Significant diet × genotype interactions indicated how AA goats, compared with AF goats, showed higher DM digestibility and milk yield when fed the SFB diet, which had more energy. A reduction in free triiodothyronine hormone occurred in AF goats fed the MHB diet, whereas no differences were observed in AA goats. These results demonstrate how goats with a higher capacity for αS1-CN synthesis exhibit more efficient energy and protein utilization, evident at the digestive level, and better productive responses to high-nutrition diets.
    Journal of Dairy Science 04/2013; 96(4):2107–2117. DOI:10.3168/jds.2012-6244 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    • "Previous studies have reported that the CSN1S1 can affect casein, protein, and fat levels, total solids, milk rheology, as well as cheese yield and quality (Pirisi et al. 1994; Clark & Sherbon, 2000; Martin et al. 2002; Roncada et al. 2002; Gómez-Ruiz et al. 2004; Zeng et al. 2007; Pagano et al. 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the CSN1S1 locus polymorphism on 305-d records of milk, fat, protein, lactose and total solids yields, fat, protein, lactose and total solids contents in Mexican dairy goats. A total of 514 lactation records belonging to Alpine (n=60), Saanen (n=105) and Toggenburg (n=74) goats, born from 2003 to 2006 in three herds were used. Discrimination between alleles E, F, N, A* (CSN1S1 A, G, H, I, O1 and O2) and B* (CSN1S1 B1, B2, B3, B4, C and L) were made by amplification of fragments of the gene CSN1S1 and digestion with the restriction endonuclease XmnI. In order to estimate additive and dominance effects, data sets including (1) all genotypes, and (2) only homozygote genotypes, were analysed using linear mixed models. The allele A*, had significant additive effects for protein content (0·21±0·07%; P=0·002) and total solids content (0·66±0·23%; P=0·005) when compared with allele F. An unfavourable additive effect of allele A* on milk yield was found in the Alpine breed (-81·4±40·2; P=0·046) when compared with allele F. Favourable dominance effects were found for some genotypes (P<0·05) for milk yield (A*N and B*N), fat yield (A*N and B*E), protein yield (A*N and B*E), lactose yield (A*N) and total solids yield (A*N). Also, unfavourable dominance effects were found (P<0·05) for protein content (A*B* and A*N) and total solids content (A*B*, A*N, and A*F). Allele A* was the only one with a positive effect for protein content. Significant allele-year interaction effects were also observed. The presence of significant dominance effects, estimated between specific pairs of alleles, challenged the purely additive nature of the genetic effect at the CSN1S1 locus. Implications from use of CSN1S1 effects in goat breeding programmes are presented.
    Journal of Dairy Research 08/2012; 79(3):367-74. DOI:10.1017/S0022029912000350 · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    • "The production genes of paramount importance include the growth hormone (GH), αS1-casein (CSN1S1), and α-lactalbumin. The selection based on certain polymorphism in GH (Hua et al. 2009), CSN1S1 (Pagano et al. 2010), and α-lactalbumin (Jain et al. 2009) is well documented; moreover, the selection based on specific polymorphism in MHC class II DRB (Mainguy et al. 2007) and prion (PrP) (Papasavva-Stylianou et al. 2007) helps in selecting goats with respective high immunity potential (Mainguy et al. 2007) and resistance to scrapie prions involved in zoonoses (Collinge 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this research is to optimize quantitatively the amplification of specific sperm genes in reference genomically characterized Saanen goat and to evaluate the standardized protocols applicability on sperms of uncharacterized genome of rural goats reared under subtropical environment for inclusion in future selection programs. The optimization of the protocols in Saanen sperms included three production genes (growth hormone (GH) exons 2, 3, and 4, αS1-casein (CSN1S1), and α-lactalbumin) and two health genes (MHC class II DRB and prion (PrP)). The optimization was based on varying the primers concentrations and the inclusion of a PCR cosolvent (Triton X). The impact of the studied variables on statistically significant increase in the yield of amplicons was noticed in four out of five (80%) optimized protocols, namely in those related to GH, CSN1S1, α-lactalbumin, and PrP genes (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the yield of amplicons related to MHC class II DRB gene, regardless of the variables used (P > 0.05). The applicability of the optimized protocols of Saanen sperm genes on amplification of uncharacterized rural goat sperms revealed a 100% success in tested individuals for amplification of GH, CSN1S1, α-lactalbumin, and MHC class II DRB genes and a 75% success for the PrP gene. The significant success in applicability of the Saanen quantitatively optimized protocols to other uncharacterized genome of rural goats allows for their inclusion in future selection, targeting the sustainability of this farming system in a subtropical environment and the improvement of the farmers livelihood.
    Tropical Animal Health and Production 02/2012; 44(7):1513-9. DOI:10.1007/s11250-012-0096-2 · 0.82 Impact Factor
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