Article

Incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant women

Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine 01/2010;
Source: DOAJ

ABSTRACT Background: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is the most common metabolic complications of pregnancy, and causes fetal mortality and morbidity. Therefore, early diagnosis of GDM is necessary to reduce maternal and fetal morbidity and to help prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetesObjective: This prospective study was carried out to determine the incidence of GDM in Yazd and to assess the effect of various contributing factors.Materials and Methods: One thousand and seventy one pregnant women were screened for GDM at 24-28 weeks. Initial screening was done by a glucose challenge test with 50 g glucose. If the 1-hour blood glucose level exceeded 130 mg/dl, then a 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with 100g glucose was performed and diagnosis was established according to American Diabetes Association criteria.Results: Three hundred and forty two (31.9%) women had an abnormal screening test and proceeded to oral glucose tolerance testing. The overall incidence of GDM was 10.2% (n=110). Seventy six of subjects (7.1%) have one abnormal OGTT. There was a significant association between incidence of GDM and age, familial history of diabetes, BMI before pregnancy, parity, history of GDM, macrosomic baby, still birth during previous pregnancies and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion: According to high incidence of GDM in our area we recommend screening for GDM in all pregnant women and modification of contributing factors in high risk women.

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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to compare neonatal outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) treated with either metformin or insulin. A randomized clinical trial carried out on year 2011 on 109 women with GDM who did not adequately control by dietary measures. They received metformin 500 mg once or twice daily or insulin 0.2 IU/kg/day initially. The dose was titrated to achieve target blood glucose values. Neonatal outcomes such as hypoglycemia, birth weight, Apgar score, umbilical artery pH, and hyperbilirubinemia in the 50 women who remained exclusively on metformin were compared with 50 women who treated with insulin. Two groups were similar in mean fasting blood sugar (P = 0.7) and postprandial measurements (P = 0.8) throughout GDM treatment. Pregnancy complications or preterm labor were not different significantly between two groups. Considering neonatal outcomes between insulin and metformin groups, such as hypoglycemia (2 [4%] and 0 [0%], respectively), birth weight (3342 ± 506 mg and 3176 ± 438 mg, respectively), 5(th) min Apgar score <7 (no one in either group), umbilical artery pH <7.05 (no one in either group) and hyperbilirubinemia (1 [2%] and 0 [0%], respectively), no significant statistical differences were seen. Based on these preliminary data, considering neonatal outcomes, metformin appears to be a safe as insulin in the treatment of GDM.
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Objectives:Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a global health concern as it affects health status of both mother and fetus. In India, prevalence of GDM varies in different populations and no data is available from rural Haryana. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of GDM and risk factors associated with it in rural women of Haryana.Materials and Methods:Nine hundred and thirteen women, with estimated gestational age above 24 weeks from a rural block of Haryana who consented to participate were given a standardized 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Pro forma containing general information on demographic characteristics, educational level, gravida, family history of diabetes, and past history of GDM was filled-up. A World Health Organization (WHO) criterion for 2-h 75-g OGTT was used for diagnosing GDM.Results:GDM was diagnosed in 127/913 (13.9%) women with higher mean age as compared to non-GDM women. Majority (78.4%) of the women were housewives, rest engaged in agriculture (9.2%) and labor (5.5%). Women with gravida ≥3 and positive family history of diabetes had significantly higher prevalence of GDM. History of macrosomia (birth weight ≥4 kg) was significantly associated with prevalence of GDM (P = 0.002). On multiple logistic regression analysis, risk factors found to be significantly associated with GDM were maternal age >25 years, gravida >3, history of macrosomic baby, and family history of diabetes.Conclusion:The prevalence of GDM has been found quite high in rural Haryana. Appropriate interventions are required for control and risk factor modifications.
    05/2014; 18(3):350-4. DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.131176
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    ABSTRACT: Background Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) are part of a heterogeneous and complex metabolic group of disorders that share common pathophysiological circumstances, including β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. The protein Calpain 10 (CAPN10) plays a role in glucose metabolism, pancreatic β-cell insulin secretion, and thermogenesis. Objective Polymerase Chain Reaction–Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) based genotyping of CAPN10 (rs2975760) polymorphism was carried out in T2DM and GDM with suitable controls for each of the pathologies from the same population. Genomic DNA was isolated from 787 participants, including 250 cases of T2DM, 287 pregnant women, of which 137 were identified as having GDM and the remaining 150 were confirmed as non-GDM, and 250 healthy control volunteers, and association analysis was carried out for genotypes and alleles. Results In the present study, T2DM was compared with healthy controls and was not found to be associated with the CAPN10 C allele (odds ratio, OR: 1.09; 95% CI = 0.8011–1.484; p = 0.5821). GDM also did not show any association when compared with non-GDM (OR: 1.124; 95% CI = 0.7585–1.667; p = 0.5606) respectively. Conclusion Our study suggests that the CAPN10 (rs2975760) polymorphism scrutinized in this study is not associated with T2DM and GDM.
    12/2014; 2:299–306. DOI:10.1016/j.mgene.2014.03.001

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