Article

Incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant women

Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine 01/2010;
Source: DOAJ

ABSTRACT Background: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is the most common metabolic complications of pregnancy, and causes fetal mortality and morbidity. Therefore, early diagnosis of GDM is necessary to reduce maternal and fetal morbidity and to help prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetesObjective: This prospective study was carried out to determine the incidence of GDM in Yazd and to assess the effect of various contributing factors.Materials and Methods: One thousand and seventy one pregnant women were screened for GDM at 24-28 weeks. Initial screening was done by a glucose challenge test with 50 g glucose. If the 1-hour blood glucose level exceeded 130 mg/dl, then a 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with 100g glucose was performed and diagnosis was established according to American Diabetes Association criteria.Results: Three hundred and forty two (31.9%) women had an abnormal screening test and proceeded to oral glucose tolerance testing. The overall incidence of GDM was 10.2% (n=110). Seventy six of subjects (7.1%) have one abnormal OGTT. There was a significant association between incidence of GDM and age, familial history of diabetes, BMI before pregnancy, parity, history of GDM, macrosomic baby, still birth during previous pregnancies and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion: According to high incidence of GDM in our area we recommend screening for GDM in all pregnant women and modification of contributing factors in high risk women.

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    ABSTRACT: Early diagnosis of GDM is necessary to reduce maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. As all approaches to diagnosis of GDM are costly and difficult, we meant to find an appropriate and simple way to perform this test. One-thousand six-hundred and fifty-three pregnant women were screened for GDM at 24-28 weeks of gestation. Initial screening was done by a glucose challenge test with 50 g glucose. If the 1-h blood glucose level exceeded 130 mg/dl, then a 3-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with 100 g glucose was performed, and diagnosis was established according to ADA criteria. For determining which plasma glucose level is the best test for diagnosis of GDM, we used receiver operative characteristic cures (ROC) by plotting sensitivity versus one minus specificity at different times of plasma glucose levels in OGTT. In 732 pregnant women with a positive GCT, a 2-h plasma glucose level above 150 mg/dl was the most powerful test for detecting GDM, which revealed a sensitivity and specificity of 0.84 (0.81-0.86) and 0.94 (CI: 0.92-0.96), respectively. The results of this study suggest that 2-h 100 g OGTT could be an appropriate approach to diagnose GDM, which is cost-effective and could reduce laboratory workload.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) are part of a heterogeneous and complex metabolic group of disorders that share common pathophysiological circumstances, including β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. The protein Calpain 10 (CAPN10) plays a role in glucose metabolism, pancreatic β-cell insulin secretion, and thermogenesis. Objective Polymerase Chain Reaction–Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) based genotyping of CAPN10 (rs2975760) polymorphism was carried out in T2DM and GDM with suitable controls for each of the pathologies from the same population. Genomic DNA was isolated from 787 participants, including 250 cases of T2DM, 287 pregnant women, of which 137 were identified as having GDM and the remaining 150 were confirmed as non-GDM, and 250 healthy control volunteers, and association analysis was carried out for genotypes and alleles. Results In the present study, T2DM was compared with healthy controls and was not found to be associated with the CAPN10 C allele (odds ratio, OR: 1.09; 95% CI = 0.8011–1.484; p = 0.5821). GDM also did not show any association when compared with non-GDM (OR: 1.124; 95% CI = 0.7585–1.667; p = 0.5606) respectively. Conclusion Our study suggests that the CAPN10 (rs2975760) polymorphism scrutinized in this study is not associated with T2DM and GDM.
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