Generating heparan sulfate saccharide libraries for glycomics applications.

Centre for Glycobiology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
Nature Protocol (Impact Factor: 8.36). 05/2010; 5(5):821-33. DOI: 10.1038/nprot.2010.17
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Natural and semi-synthetic heparan sulfate (HS) saccharide libraries are a valuable resource for investigating HS structure-function relationships, enabling high-throughput glycomics studies. Owing to the difficulty of chemical or in vitro enzymatic synthesis of HS saccharides, the structural diversity displayed in saccharides from tissue or cell sources cannot be readily accessed. In contrast, saccharide libraries can be generated by partial digestion of tissue-derived HS polysaccharide chains and chromatographic fractionation of the resulting saccharide mixtures. Fractionation is initially on the basis of hydrodynamic volume, using size exclusion chromatography. Further fractionation, on the basis of charge using strong anion exchange, can subsequently be applied. Desalting and sample concentration follows each fractionation step. Chromatographic fractions are generated that contain purified, or partially purified, saccharides. Here we describe a comprehensive protocol for generation of structurally diverse natural saccharide libraries from HS variants that is fast (approximately 3 weeks) and reproducible.

1 Bookmark
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Heparan sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycans participate in critical biological processes by modulating the activity of a diverse set of protein binding partners. Such proteins include all known members of the chemokine superfamily, which are thought to guide the migration of immune cells through their interactions with HS. Here, we describe an expedient, divergent synthesis to prepare defined HS glycomimetics that recapitulate the overall structure and activity of HS glycosaminoglycans. Our approach uses a core disaccharide precursor to produce a variety of differentially sulfated glycopolymers. We demonstrate that a specific trisulfated mimetic antagonizes the chemotactic activity of the proinflammatory chemokine RANTES with potency similar to that of heparin, without inhibiting serine proteases in the blood coagulation cascade. Our work provides a general strategy for modulating chemokine activity and dissecting the pleiotropic functions of HS/heparin through the presentation of defined sulfation motifs within polymeric scaffolds.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 07/2013; · 10.68 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are complex polysaccharides composed of hexosamine-containing disaccharide repeating units. The three most studied classes of GAGs, heparin/heparan sulfate, hyaluronan, and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate, are essential macromolecules. GAGs isolated from animal and microbial sources have been utilized therapeutically, but naturally occurring GAGs are extremely heterogeneous limiting further development of these agents. These molecules pose difficult targets to construct by classical organic syntheses due to the long chain lengths and complex patterns of modification by sulfation and epimerization. Chemoenzymatic synthesis, a process that employs exquisite enzyme catalysts and various defined precursors (e.g., uridine 5'-diphosphosphate-sugar donors, sulfate donors, acceptors, and oxazoline precursors), promises to deliver homogeneous GAGs. This review covers both theoretical and practical issues of GAG oligosaccharide and polysaccharide preparation as single molecular entities and in library formats. Even at this early stage of technology development, nearly monodisperse GAGs can be made with either natural or artificial structures.
    Glycobiology 03/2013; · 3.54 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background. Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) is a multidomain membrane protein with soluble isoforms interacting with a complex network of other membrane receptors, their respective ligands and heparan sulfate (HS). It is involved in the development of vasculature, neural patterning, immunological responses and pathological angiogenesis. Methods. We have characterised the binding of a Fc fusion of rat NRP-1 (Fc rNRP-1) and of a soluble isoform, corresponding to the first four extracellular domains of human NRP-1, shNRP-1, using optical biosensor-based binding assays with a library of heparin derivatives. Selective labelling of lysines protected upon heparin binding allowed their identification by mass spectrometry. Results. Fc rNRP-1 bound to heparin with high affinity (2.5 nM) and fast ka (9.8 × 10(6) M(-1)s(-1)). Unusually, NRP-1 bound both highly sulfated and completely desulfated stretches of heparin and exhibited a complex pattern of preferences for chemically modified heparins possessing one or two sulfate groups, e.g., it bound heparin with just a 6-O sulfate group better than heparin with any two of N-sulfate, 6-O sulfate and 2-O sulfate. Mass-spectrometry based mapping identified that, in addition to the expected the b1 domain, the a1, and c domains and the L2 linker were also involved in the interaction. In contrast, shNRP-1 bound heparin far more weakly. This could only be shown by affinity chromatography and by differential scanning fluorimetry. Discussion. The results suggest that the interaction of NRP-1 with HS is more complex than anticipated and involving a far greater extent of the protein than just the b1-b2 domains. NRP-1's preference for binding long saccharide structures suggests it has the potential to bind large segments of HS chains and so organise their local structure. In contrast, the four domain soluble isoform, shNRP-1 binds heparin weakly and so would be expected to diffuse away rapidly from the source cell.
    PeerJ. 01/2014; 2:e461.

Full-text (3 Sources)

Available from
May 26, 2014