Article

Skin temperature modifies the impact of hypohydration on aerobic performance

US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, Kansas St., Natick, MA 01760, USA.
Journal of Applied Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.43). 04/2010; 109(1):79-86. DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00135.2010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study determined the effects of hypohydration on aerobic performance in compensable [evaporative cooling requirement (E(req)) < maximal evaporative cooling (E(max))] conditions of 10 degrees C [7 degrees C wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT)], 20 degrees C (16 degrees C WBGT), 30 degrees C (22 degrees C WBGT), and 40 degrees C (27 degrees C WBGT) ambient temperature (T(a)). Our hypothesis was that 4% hypohydration would impair aerobic performance to a greater extent with increasing heat stress. Thirty-two men [22 +/- 4 yr old, 45 +/- 8 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) peak O(2) uptake (Vo(2 peak))] were divided into four matched cohorts (n = 8) and tested at one of four T(a) in euhydrated (EU) and hypohydrated (HYPO, -4% body mass) conditions. Subjects completed 30 min of preload exercise (cycle ergometer, 50% Vo(2 peak)) followed by a 15 min self-paced time trial. Time-trial performance (total work, change from EU) was -3% (P = 0.1), -5% (P = 0.06), -12% (P < 0.05), and -23% (P < 0.05) in 10 degrees C, 20 degrees C, 30 degrees C, and 40 degrees C T(a), respectively. During preload exercise, skin temperature (T(sk)) increased by approximately 4 degrees C per 10 degrees C T(a), while core (rectal) temperature (T(re)) values were similar within EU and HYPO conditions across all T(a). A significant relationship (P < 0.05, r = 0.61) was found between T(sk) and the percent decrement in time-trial performance. During preload exercise, hypohydration generally blunted the increases in cardiac output and blood pressure while reducing blood volume over time in 30 degrees C and 40 degrees C T(a). Our conclusions are as follows: 1) hypohydration degrades aerobic performance to a greater extent with increasing heat stress; 2) when T(sk) is >29 degrees C, 4% hypohydration degrades aerobic performance by approximately 1.6% for each additional 1 degrees C T(sk); and 3) cardiovascular strain from high skin blood flow requirements combined with blood volume reductions induced by hypohydration is an important contributor to impaired performance.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Brett R Ely, Mar 17, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
142 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Only limited research evaluates possible benefits of combined drinking and external cooling (by pouring cold water over the body) during exercise. Therefore, this study examined cold water drinking and external cooling on physiological, perceptual, and performance variables in hot, dry environments. Ten male runners completed four trials of walking 90 min at 30% VO(2max) followed by running a 5-km time trial in 33 ± 1 °C and 30 ± 4% relative humidity. Trials examined no intervention (CON), oral rehydration (OR), external cooling (EC), and oral rehydration plus external cooling (OR + EC). Investigators measured rectal temperature, skin temperatures, heart rate, thirst, thermal sensation, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). Oral rehydration (OR and OR + EC) significantly lowered heart rate (P < 0.001) and thirst (P < 0.001) compared with nondrinking (CON and EC) during low-intensity exercise. External cooling (EC and OR + EC) significantly reduced chest and thigh temperature (P < 0.001), thermal sensation (P < 0.001), and RPE (P = 0.041) compared with non-external cooling (CON and OR) during low-intensity exercise. Performance exhibited no differences (CON = 23.86 ± 4.57 min, OR = 22.74 ± 3.20 min, EC = 22.96 ± 3.11 min, OR + EC = 22.64 ± 3.73 min, P = 0.379). Independent of OR, pouring cold water on the body benefited skin temperature, thermal sensation, and RPE during low-intensity exercise in hot, dry conditions but failed to influence high-intensity performance.
    Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports 08/2012; 22(6). DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2012.01510.x · 3.17 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examined whether a rise in thermal and cardiovascular strain during exercise to exhaustion in the heat at different intensities is associated with compromised muscle and cerebral oxygenation. Using near-infrared spectroscopy, oxygenation changes in the vastus lateralis and prefrontal cortex of ten subjects cycling to exhaustion in 40 °C conditions at 60 % (H60%) and 75 % (H75%) maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) and for 60 min in 18 °C conditions at 60 % [Formula: see text] (C60%) were examined. Thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses were also monitored. Rectal temperature reached 38.1 °C in the C60% trial, 39.7 °C (~60 min) and 39.0 °C (~27 min) in the H60% and H75% trials, respectively (P < 0.001). The core-to-skin temperature gradient was similarly narrow (~0.9 °C) at exhaustion in the heat, occurring >97 % of maximum heart rate and accompanied by significant declines in stroke volume, cardiac output and mean arterial pressure (P < 0.01). Vastus lateralis oxygen saturation (SmO(2)) declined at the onset of exercise in all conditions, remaining similarly depressed at exhaustion in the heat. Prefrontal cortex oxygen saturation (ScO(2)) was ~10 % lower at exhaustion in the H60% and H75% trials compared with C60% (P < 0.01), which remained above baseline from 15 min onward. These findings indicate that changes in SmO(2) and ScO(2) are associated with the development of thermal and cardiovascular strain during exercise to exhaustion in the heat, which is accelerated by exercise intensity. In locomotor muscles, a potential reduction in oxygen delivery may develop, whereas in the brain, the progressive reduction in ScO(2) may induce mental fatigue.
    Arbeitsphysiologie 05/2012; DOI:10.1007/s00421-012-2427-4 · 2.30 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper reviews the roles of hot skin (>35°C) and body water deficits (>2% body mass; hypohydration) in impairing submaximal aerobic performance. Hot skin is associated with high skin blood flow requirements and hypohydration is associated with reduced cardiac filling, both of which act to reduce aerobic reserve. In euhydrated subjects, hot skin alone (with a modest core temperature elevation) impairs submaximal aerobic performance. Conversely, aerobic performance is sustained with core temperatures >40°C if skin temperatures are cool-warm when euhydrated. No study has demonstrated that high core temperature (∼40°C) alone, without coexisting hot skin, will impair aerobic performance. In hypohydrated subjects, aerobic performance begins to be impaired when skin temperatures exceed 27°C, and even warmer skin exacerbates the aerobic performance impairment (-1.5% for each 1°C skin temperature). We conclude that hot skin (high skin blood flow requirements from narrow skin temperature to core temperature gradients), not high core temperature, is the 'primary' factor impairing aerobic exercise performance when euhydrated and that hypohydration exacerbates this effect.
    Experimental physiology 12/2011; 97(3):327-32. DOI:10.1113/expphysiol.2011.061002 · 2.87 Impact Factor