Circadian light

Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 21 Union Street, Troy, NY 12180, USA. .
Journal of Circadian Rhythms 02/2010; 8(1):2. DOI: 10.1186/1740-3391-8-2
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The present paper reflects a work in progress toward a definition of circadian light, one that should be informed by the thoughtful, century-old evolution of our present definition of light as a stimulus for the human visual system. This work in progress is based upon the functional relationship between optical radiation and its effects on nocturnal melatonin suppression, in large part because the basic data are available in the literature. Discussed here are the fundamental differences between responses by the visual and circadian systems to optical radiation. Brief reviews of photometry, colorimetry, and brightness perception are presented as a foundation for the discussion of circadian light. Finally, circadian light (CLA) and circadian stimulus (CS) calculation procedures based on a published mathematical model of human circadian phototransduction are presented with an example.

Download full-text


Available from: Mariana Figueiro, Apr 07, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The intrinsic circadian clock requires photoentrainment to synchronize the 24-hour solar day. Therefore, light stimulation is an important component of chronobiological research. Currently, the chronobiological research field overwhelmingly uses photopic illuminance that is based on the luminous efficiency function, V(λ), to quantify light levels. However, recent discovery of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), which are activated by self-containing melanopsin photopigment and also by inputs from rods and cones, makes light specification using a one-dimensional unit inadequate. Since the current understanding of how different photoreceptor inputs contribute to the circadian system through ipRGCs is limited, it is recommended to specify light in terms of the excitations of five photoreceptors (S-, M-, L-cones, rods and ipRGCs)(Lucas, Peirson et al., 2014). In the current study, we assessed whether the spectral outputs from a commercially available spectral watch (i.e., Actiwatch Spectrum) could be used to estimate photoreceptor excitations. Based on the color sensor spectral sensitivity functions from a previously published work, as well as from our measurements, we computed spectral outputs in the long-wavelength range (R), middle-wavelength range (G), short-wavelength range (B) and broadband range (W) under 52 CIE illuminants (25 daylight illuminants, 27 fluorescent lights). We also computed the photoreceptor excitations for each illuminant using human photoreceptor spectral sensitivity functions. Linear regression analyses indicated that the Actiwatch spectral outputs could predict photoreceptor excitations reliably, under the assumption of linear responses of the Actiwatch color sensors. In addition, R, G, B outputs could classify illuminant types (fluorescent vs. daylight illuminants) satisfactorily. However, the assessment of actual Actiwatch recording under several testing light sources showed that the spectral outputs were subject to great nonlinearity, leading to less accurate estimation of photoreceptor excitations. Based on our analyses, we recommend that each spectral watch should be calibrated to measure spectral sensitivity functions and linearization characteristics for each sensor to have an accurate estimation of photoreceptor excitations. The method we provided to estimate photoreceptor excitations from the outputs of spectral watches could be used for chronobiological studies that can tolerate an error in the range of 0.2-0.5 log units. Our method can be easily expanded to incorporate linearization functions to have more accurate estimations.
    Chronobiology International 10/2014; 32(2):In Press. DOI:10.3109/07420528.2014.966269 · 2.88 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although circadian disruption is an accepted term, little has been done to develop methods to quantify the degree of disruption or entrainment individual organisms actually exhibit in the field. A variety of behavioral, physiological and hormonal responses vary in amplitude over a 24-h period and the degree to which these circadian rhythms are synchronized to the daily light–dark cycle can be quantified with a technique known as phasor analysis. Several studies have been carried out using phasor analysis in an attempt to measure circadian disruption exhibited by animals and by humans. To perform these studies, species-specific light measurement and light delivery technologies had to be developed based upon a fundamental understanding of circadian phototransduction mechanisms in the different species. When both nocturnal rodents and diurnal humans, experienced different species-specific light–dark shift schedules, they showed, based upon phasor analysis of the light–dark and activity–rest patterns, similar levels of light-dependent circadian disruption. Indeed, both rodents and humans show monotonically increasing and quantitatively similar levels of light-dependent circadian disruption with increasing shift-nights per week. Thus, phasor analysis provides a method for quantifying circadian disruption in the field and in the laboratory as well as a bridge between ecological measurements of circadian entrainment in humans and parametric studies of circadian disruption in animal models, including nocturnal rodents.
    Chronobiology International 09/2014; 31(10):1-8. DOI:10.3109/07420528.2014.957302 · 2.88 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper reports a comparison of the results of daylight measurements carried out in summer and winter in three offices, with different exposures and characteristics, located in Naples (Italy). The aim was to extend and enrich the findings of a previous study which reported the results of summer measurements about desk illuminances and circadian impact. The research project includes measurements carried out in other seasons and a comparison between measured and software simulated values with the final goal of developing design guidelines. This research confirmed that the spectral distributions and CCTs of the light reaching the eye of a person seated at the desk in these offices are similar, irrespective of the different sky's conditions and season and of the rooms' different characteristics (dimensions, surfaces' spectral reflectances, external obstructions, etc.). It was also confirmed that eye level irradiances and thence their circadian impact are similar to those of D50 and D55 CIE standard illuminants.
    Building and Environment 07/2014; 81. DOI:10.1016/j.buildenv.2014.06.015 · 2.70 Impact Factor