Spatial and temporal frequency tuning in striate cortex: functional uniformity and specializations related to receptive field eccentricity.
ABSTRACT In light of anatomical evidence suggesting differential connection patterns in central vs. peripheral representations of cortical areas, we investigated the extent to which the response properties of cells in the primary visual area (V1) of the marmoset change as a function of eccentricity. Responses to combinations of the spatial and temporal frequencies of visual stimuli were quantified for neurons with receptive fields ranging from 3 degrees to 70 degrees eccentricity. Optimal spatial frequencies and stimulus speeds reflected the expectation that the responses of cells throughout V1 are essentially uniform, once scaled according to the cortical magnification factor. In addition, temporal frequency tuning was similar throughout V1. However, spatial frequency tuning curves depended both on the cell's optimal spatial frequency and on the receptive field eccentricity: cells with peripheral receptive fields showed narrower bandwidths than cells with central receptive fields that were sensitive to the same optimal spatial frequency. Although most V1 cells had separable spatial and temporal frequency tuning, the proportion of neurons displaying significant spatiotemporal interactions increased in the representation of far peripheral vision (> 50 degrees). In addition, of the fewer than 5% of V1 cells that showed robust (spatial frequency independent) selectivity to stimulus speed, most were concentrated in the representation of the far periphery. Spatiotemporal interactions in the responses of many cells in the peripheral representation of V1 reduced the ambiguity of responses to high-speed (> 30 degrees/s) signals. These results support the notion of a relative specialization for motion processing in the far peripheral representations of cortical areas, including V1.
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ABSTRACT: We conducted suprathreshold discrimination experiments to compare how natural-scene information is processed in central and peripheral vision (16° eccentricity). Observers' ratings of the perceived magnitude of changes in naturalistic scenes were lower for peripheral than for foveal viewing, and peripheral orientation changes were rated less than peripheral colour changes. A V1-based Visual Difference Predictor model of the magnitudes of perceived foveal change was adapted to match the sinusoidal grating sensitivities of peripheral vision, but it could not explain why the ratings for changes in peripheral stimuli were so reduced. Perceived magnitude ratings for peripheral stimuli were further reduced by simultaneous presentation of flanking patches of naturalistic images, a phenomenon that could not be replicated foveally, even after M-scaling the foveal stimuli to reduce their size and the distances from the flankers. The effects of the peripheral flankers are very reminiscent of crowding phenomena demonstrated with letters or Gabor patches.Vision research 05/2011; 51(14):1686-98. DOI:10.1016/j.visres.2011.05.010 · 2.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has been valuable as a primate model in biomedical research. Interest in this species has grown recently, in part due to the successful demonstration of transgenic marmosets. Here we examine the prospects of the marmoset model for visual neuroscience research, adopting a comparative framework to place the marmoset within a broader evolutionary context. The marmoset's small brain bears most of the organizational features of other primates, and its smooth surface offers practical advantages over the macaque for areal mapping, laminar electrode penetration, and two-photon and optical imaging. Behaviorally, marmosets are more limited at performing regimented psychophysical tasks, but do readily accept the head restraint that is necessary for accurate eye tracking and neurophysiology, and can perform simple discriminations. Their natural gaze behavior closely resembles that of other primates, with a tendency to focus on objects of social interest including faces. Their immaturity at birth and routine twinning also makes them ideal for the study of postnatal visual development. These experimental factors, together with the theoretical advantages inherent in comparing anatomy, physiology, and behavior across related species, make the marmoset an excellent model for visual neuroscience. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.Neuroscience Research 02/2015; 15. DOI:10.1016/j.neures.2015.01.008 · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We quantified the capacity for reorganization of the topographic representation of area V1 in adult monkeys. Bias-free automated mapping methods were used to delineate receptive fields (RFs) of an array of neuronal clusters prior to, and up to 6 h following retinal lesions. Monocular lesions caused a significant reorganization of the topographic map in this area, both inside and outside the cortical lesion projection zone (LPZ). Small flashed stimuli revealed responses up to 0.85 mm inside the boundaries of the LPZ, with RFs representing regions of undamaged retina immediately surrounding the lesion. In contrast, long moving bars that spanned the scotoma resulting from the lesion revealed responsive units up to 1.87 mm inside the LPZ, with RFs representing interpolated responses in this region. This reorganization is present immediately after monocular retinal lesioning. Both stimuli showed a similar and significant (5-fold) increase of the RF scatter in the LPZ, 0.56 mm (median), compared with the undamaged retina, 0.12 mm. Our results reveal an array of preexisting subthreshold functional connections of up to 2 mm in V1, which can be rapidly mobilized independently from the differential qualitative reorganization elicited by each stimulus.Cerebral Cortex 09/2012; 24(1). DOI:10.1093/cercor/bhs208 · 8.31 Impact Factor