Spatial and temporal frequency tuning in striate cortex: functional uniformity and specializations related to receptive field eccentricity.
ABSTRACT In light of anatomical evidence suggesting differential connection patterns in central vs. peripheral representations of cortical areas, we investigated the extent to which the response properties of cells in the primary visual area (V1) of the marmoset change as a function of eccentricity. Responses to combinations of the spatial and temporal frequencies of visual stimuli were quantified for neurons with receptive fields ranging from 3 degrees to 70 degrees eccentricity. Optimal spatial frequencies and stimulus speeds reflected the expectation that the responses of cells throughout V1 are essentially uniform, once scaled according to the cortical magnification factor. In addition, temporal frequency tuning was similar throughout V1. However, spatial frequency tuning curves depended both on the cell's optimal spatial frequency and on the receptive field eccentricity: cells with peripheral receptive fields showed narrower bandwidths than cells with central receptive fields that were sensitive to the same optimal spatial frequency. Although most V1 cells had separable spatial and temporal frequency tuning, the proportion of neurons displaying significant spatiotemporal interactions increased in the representation of far peripheral vision (> 50 degrees). In addition, of the fewer than 5% of V1 cells that showed robust (spatial frequency independent) selectivity to stimulus speed, most were concentrated in the representation of the far periphery. Spatiotemporal interactions in the responses of many cells in the peripheral representation of V1 reduced the ambiguity of responses to high-speed (> 30 degrees/s) signals. These results support the notion of a relative specialization for motion processing in the far peripheral representations of cortical areas, including V1.
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ABSTRACT: We investigate the hypothesis that the early visual system efficiently codes natural time varying images, first by tracking part of the image, then by matching the spatiotemporal properties of the neural pathway to those of the tracked image. A representation for the time varying image is formulated which consists of two spatiotemporal components, a velocity field component and a stationary component. We show, using digitized sequences of natural images, that the spatiotemporal spectrum and other attributes of the image markedly differ before and after tracking. The temporal frequency bandwidth and velocity distribution of the velocity field component are diminished in the region of tracking and broaden with increasing eccentricity from this region. On the other hand, the spectrum of the stationary component is unaffected by tracking. Comparison of the properties of the tracked image to those of the M and P pathways suggests that each pathway transmits different attributes of the tracked image. A retinal architecture which varies with eccentricity also matches the properties of the tracked image.Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences 04/1993; 339(1290):385-95. · 6.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The dorsomedial visual area (DM), a subdivision of extrastriate cortex located near the dorsal midline, is characterized by heavy myelination and a relative emphasis on peripheral vision. To date, DM remains the least understood of the three primary targets of projections from the striate cortex (V1) in New World monkeys. Here, we characterize the responses of DM neurons in anaesthetized marmosets to drifting sine wave gratings. Most (82.4%) cells showed bidirectional sensitivity, with only 6.9% being strongly direction selective. The distribution of orientation sensitivity was bimodal, with a distinct population (corresponding to over half of the sample) formed by neurons with very narrow selectivity. When compared with a sample of V1 units representing a comparable range of eccentricities, DM cells revealed a preference for much lower spatial frequencies, and higher speeds. End inhibition was extremely rare, and the responses of many cells summated over distances as large as 30 degrees. Our results suggest clear differences between DM and the two other main targets of V1 projections, the second (V2) and middle temporal (MT) areas, with cells in DM emphasizing aspects of visual information that are likely to be relevant for motor control.Cerebral Cortex 03/2006; 16(2):162-77. · 6.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The spatial and temporal frequency selectivity of 148 neurones in the striate cortex, V1, and of 122 neurones in the second visual cortical area, V2, of the macaque monkey were studied using sine-wave gratings of suprathreshold contrast drifting over the receptive field at the preferred orientation and direction. Neurones in V1 and V2 were selective for different but partially overlapping ranges of the spatial frequency spectrum. At retinal eccentricities of 2-5 deg from the fovea, the spatial frequency preferences for neurones ranged from 0.5 to 8.0 cycles/deg in V1 and from 0.2 to 2.1 cycles/deg in V2 and were on average almost 2 octaves lower in V2 than in V1. Spatial frequency full band widths in the two cortical areas were in the range 0.8-3.0 octaves, with a mean value of 1.8 octaves, in the parafoveal representation of both V1 and V2, and 1.4 and 1.6 octaves respectively in the foveal representation of V1 and V2. Most neurones in V1 and some in V2 responded well at temporal frequencies up to 5.6-8.0 Hz before their responses dropped off at still higher frequencies. In V1, 68% of the neurones exhibited low-pass temporal tuning characteristics and 32% were very broadly tuned, with a mean temporal frequency full band width of 2.9 octaves. However, in V2 only 30% of the neurones showed low-pass temporal selectivity and 70% of the cells had bandpass temporal characteristics, with a mean full band width of 2.1 octaves. In V2 the minimal overlap of bandpass tuning curves across the temporal frequency spectrum suggests that there are at least two distinct bandpass temporal frequency mechanisms as well as neurones with low-pass temporal frequency tuning at each spatial frequency. A matrix of spatial and temporal frequency combinations was employed as stimuli for neurones with bandpass temporal frequency selectivity in both V1 and V2. The resultant spatio-temporal surfaces provided evidence that a neurone's preference for spatial frequency is essentially independent of the test temporal frequency; however, in V2 there was some tendency for temporal frequency peaks to shift slightly towards lower frequencies when non-optimum values of spatial frequency either above or below the preferred value were tested. Neurones with pronounced directional selectivity were encountered over a wide range of spatial frequencies, although in both cortical areas there was a tendency for an increased incidence of directional selectivity among neurones which were selective for lower spatial frequencies and higher temporal frequencies.The Journal of Physiology 09/1985; 365:331-63. · 4.38 Impact Factor