The relationship between circulating fibroblast growth factor 23 and bone metabolism factors in Korean hemodialysis patients.
ABSTRACT Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) is a circulating factor that acts as a phosphaturic factor in the kidneys. It is also involved in several disorders of phosphate regulation and bone metabolism. We hypothesized that increased FGF-23 levels in patients with endstage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance hemodialysis would be associated with increased bone demineralization, and we analyzed the relationship between FGF-23 levels and bone mineral density (BMD).
The serum level of FGF-23 was measured in this cross-sectional study, whose subjects consisted of 54 patients with ESRD on maintenance hemodialysis. Clinical parameters associated with hemodialysis and bone metabolism were measured. The relationship between serum FGF-23 and BMD and the factors affecting the serum level of FGF-23 were analyzed.
Serum FGF-23 levels were significantly higher in ESRD patients on maintenance hemodialysis than in normal persons (2961.4 vs. 30 pg/ml). Multiple regression analysis showed that increasing FGF-23 levels were associated with serum phosphate (r = 0.684, P < 0.001), but not with BMD or other bone metabolism factors. Factors affecting log(10)FGF-23 included the serum calcium phosphate product (beta = 0.603) and K (t)/V (integrated fractional clearance expressed per dialysis, beta = -0.244). These results were also seen in an analysis of the correlations based on T score or gender.
FGF-23 levels were positively associated with serum phosphate levels but were not correlated with BMD. The only factors affecting log(10)FGF-23 were the serum calcium phosphate product and K (t)/V. These findings suggest that FGF-23 may have no direct effect on bone mineralization, and further studies are warranted to examine the effects of FGF-23 on vitamin D metabolism.
- SourceAvailable from: Mohammed S Razzaque[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), a recently identified molecule that is mutated in patients with autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR), appears to be involved in the regulation of phosphate homeostasis. Although increased levels of circulating FGF-23 were detected in patients with different phosphate-wasting disorders such as oncogenic osteomalacia (OOM) and X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), it is not yet clear whether FGF-23 is directly responsible for the abnormal regulation of mineral ion homeostasis and consequently bone development. To address some of these unresolved questions, we generated a mouse model, in which the entire Fgf-23 gene was replaced with the lacZ gene. Fgf-23 null (Fgf-23-/-) mice showed signs of growth retardation by day 17, developed severe hyperphosphatemia with elevated serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels, and died by 13 weeks of age. Hyperphosphatemia in Fgf-23-/- mice was accompanied by skeletal abnormalities, as demonstrated by histological, molecular, and various other morphometric analyses. Fgf-23-/-) mice had increased total-body bone mineral content (BMC) but decreased bone mineral density (BMD) of the limbs. Overall, Fgf-23-/- mice exhibited increased mineralization, but also accumulation of unmineralized osteoid leading to marked limb deformities. Moreover, Fgf-23-/- mice showed excessive mineralization in soft tissues, including heart and kidney. To further expand our understanding regarding the role of Fgf-23 in phosphate homeostasis and skeletal mineralization, we crossed Fgf-23-/- animals with Hyp mice, the murine equivalent of XLH. Interestingly, Hyp males lacking both Fgf-23 alleles were indistinguishable from Fgf-23/-/ mice, both in terms of serum phosphate levels and skeletal changes, suggesting that Fgf-23 is upstream of the phosphate regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome (Phex) and that the increased plasma Fgf-23 levels in Hyp mice (and in XLH patients) may be at least partially responsible for the phosphate imbalance in this disorder.Matrix Biology 12/2004; 23(7):421-32. · 3.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: FGF23 suppresses both serum phosphate and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25D] levels in vivo. Because 1,25D itself is a potent regulator of phosphate metabolism, it has remained unclear whether FGF23-induced changes in phosphate metabolism were caused by a 1,25D-independent mechanism. To address this issue, we intravenously administered recombinant FGF23 to vitamin D receptor (VDR) null (KO) mice as a rapid bolus injection and evaluated the early effects of FGF23. Administration of recombinant FGF23 further decreased the serum phosphate level in VDR KO mice, accompanied by a reduction in renal sodium-phosphate cotransporter type IIa (NaPi2a) protein abundance and a reduced renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase (1alphaOHase) mRNA level. Thus FGF23-induced changes in NaPi2a and 1alphaOHase expression are independent of the 1,25D/VDR system. However, 24-hydroxylase (24OHase) mRNA expression remained undetectable by the treatment with FGF23. We also analyzed the regulatory mechanism for FGF23 expression. The serum FGF23 level was almost undetectable in VDR KO mice, whereas dietary calcium supplementation significantly increased circulatory levels of FGF23 and its mRNA abundance in bone. This finding indicates that calcium is another determinant of FGF23 production that occurs independently of the VDR-mediated mechanism. In contrast, dietary phosphate supplementation failed to induce FGF23 expression in the absence of VDR, whereas marked elevation in circulatory FGF23 was observed in wild-type mice fed with a high-phosphate diet. Taken together, FGF23 works, at least in part, in a VDR-independent manner, and FGF23 production is also regulated by multiple mechanisms involving VDR-independent pathways.American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 12/2005; 289(5):F1088-95. · 3.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It is well established that abnormalities in mineral metabolism are apparent early in the course of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and result in clinically relevant consequences such as renal osteodystrophy. Furthermore, there is emerging evidence linking some of these abnormalities (hyperphosphatemia) to the high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality experienced by nondialyzed patients with CKD. Most studies have evaluated vascular calcification in patients with stage 5 CKD. Reports published over the last 2 years show that the process begins rather early in CKD and is particularly severe among elderly and type 2 diabetic patients. Furthermore, "calcium begets calcium", such that the calcification burden in early CKD is an important predictor of subsequent progression, including the rapid increase seen in stage 5 CKD. There is an increasing body of evidence that supports the thesis that elevated serum levels of phosphorus and calcium and deficiency of inhibitors of calcification (for example, fetuin-A) are important in the progression of vascular calcification in patients with end-stage renal disease. However, the concentrations of calcium and phosphorus shown to induce mineralization in cell culture studies are not observed in most patients until late in stage 4 or stage 5 CKD. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have also been unable to show a correlation between serum levels of markers of disordered mineral metabolism and severity of vascular calcification. Future studies should evaluate the pathogenetic role of phosphorus retention, which occurs early in the course of CKD, in the induction and/or progression of vascular calcification. Finally, there is a need to identify alternative pathogenetic mechanisms that may be important causes of the high calcification burden observed early in CKD.Journal of Renal Nutrition 05/2006; 16(2):100-18. · 1.75 Impact Factor