[Corneal scar development after cross-linking in keratoconus].

Universitätsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Fetscherstraße 74, 01307, Dresden.
Der Ophthalmologe (Impact Factor: 0.5). 04/2010; 107(9):837-42.
Source: PubMed


Corneal scar development after riboflavin-UVA-induced corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) was retrospectively evaluated.
A total of 163 CXL-treated eyes in 127 patients with stage 1-3 keratoconus according to Krumeich's classification were included in this retrospective analysis. The follow-up period was 1 year. At the first and at all follow-up examinations uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), biomicroscopic findings, corneal topography and corneal thickness were recorded.
At 1 year following CXL, 149 eyes (91.4%) of 114 patients had a clear cornea without corneal scar (control group), while 14 eyes (8.6%) of 13 patients developed clinically significant corneal scar (scar group). Preoperatively, the mean K value of the apex was 62.1 ± 13.8 D in the control group and 71.1 ± 13.2 D in the scar group (P=.02). The mean value of corneal thickness before the procedure was 478.1 ± 52.4 μm in the control group and 420.0 ± 33.9 μm in the scar group (P=.001). The UCVA and BCVA, which were preoperatively similar between groups (P=.59, P=.75 respectively), were postoperatively improved in the control group (P=.023, P=.001 respectively), but reduced in the scar group (P=.012, P=.004 respectively).
K-values and corneal thickness could be considered as predictive factors for the possible development of corneal scarring after riboflavin-UVA-induced CXL. Advanced keratoconus appears to be associated with a higher risk of corneal scar development due to lower corneal thickness, greater curvature and intrinsic tissue characteristics.

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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the 1-year results of 32 keratoconic eyes with thin corneas which were treated by hypo-osmolar riboflavin solution and ultraviolet A (UVA) collagen cross-linking (CXL). Patients with progressive keratoconus and a corneal thickness (CT) less than 400 µm (without epithelium) were included in this study. The CT was measured with an ultrasound device (Tomey SP-3000, Nishi-ku, Nagoya, Japan). An increase in the maximum topographic K-value at the apex of keratoconus and a reduction in corneal thickness with or without changes in visual acuity (VA) within the last year were considered to be progression. A total of 32 eyes with an additional follow-up within 1 year were evaluated before and after the procedure. Examinations consisted of an evaluation of VA, corneal topography, slit-lamp microscopy and corneal thickness measurements. Preoperatively the mean corneal thickness (with epithelium) was 382.3±41.9 μm and after removal of the epithelium the thickness of the cornea was reduced to 337.0±51.9 μm. After the application of hypo-osmolar riboflavin solution the mean value increased to 451.8±46.7 μm. Preoperatively the mean K-value of the apex of the keratoconus was 65.6±11.2 dopters, and 1 year after treatment this value remained relatively unchanged at 64.9±11.0 diopters (P=0.839). Mean VA at the time of the treatment was 0.63±0.37 logMAR and 1 year after the treatment this value was not statistically different (0.59±0.42 logMAR; P=0.662). In the last follow-up examination 1 year after the procedure all corneas were transparent without any scarring lesions in the stroma. The results of this study using hypo-osmolar riboflavin solution in a cross-linking procedure for thin corneas showed a stability of keratoconus 1 year after CXL. Application of the hypo-osmolar riboflavin solution prevented cross-linked corneas from developing stromal scars.
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To report the histological and immunohistochemical findings in a cornea removed from a patient who had undergone collagen cross-linking (CXL) with riboflavin and ultraviolet-A for progressive keratoconus. CXL was performed following the Siena protocol. Two years post-CXL, a visual acuity impairment in the treated eye secondary to corneal stromal opacity had occurred, together with corneal thinning and flattening. Methods: The excised cornea was formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and examined microscopically. Deparaffinized 4-μm sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson trichrome. Further tissue sections were subjected to immunohistochemical evaluation of CD34 and Ki-67 antigens. Results: Histologically, there was no scar tissue in the failed cornea. The biomicroscopic stromal opacity corresponded microscopically to an acellular area, devoid of keratocytes, and to compaction of the lamellar collagen. Amorphous, weakly eosinophilic interlamellar deposits, extending from the anterior to the posterior two thirds of the stroma, were noted. Conclusions: CXL is a promising procedure for the treatment of progressive keratoconus with minimal reported side effects. In the present case, we speculate that the short corneal soaking time (15 minutes according to the Siena protocol) may have resulted in inefficient ultraviolet-A blocking, thermal injury, and deeper keratocyte death. Inadequate keratocyte stem cells reservoir could also play a role in individual cases.
    Cornea 07/2012; 32(2). DOI:10.1097/ICO.0b013e3182553aac · 2.04 Impact Factor
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