Article

Neurodevelopmental functioning in children with FAS, pFAS, and ARND.

Children's Research Triangle, Chicago, IL, USA.
Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics: JDBP (Impact Factor: 2.12). 04/2010; 31(3):192-201. DOI: 10.1097/DBP.0b013e3181d5a4e2
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The purpose of this article is to compare the neurodevelopmental profiles of 78 foster and adopted children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), partial FAS (pFAS), or alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND).
Seventy-eight foster and adopted children underwent a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation. By using criteria more stringent than those required by current guidelines, the children were placed in 1 of 3 diagnostic categories: FAS, pFAS, or ARND. Each child was evaluated across the domains of neuropsychological functioning most frequently affected by prenatal exposure to alcohol. Multivariate analyses of variance were conducted to examine differences in neuropsychological functioning between the 3 diagnostic groups. Descriptive discriminant analyses were performed in follow-up to the multivariate analyses of variance.
The children in the 3 diagnostic categories were similar for descriptive and child welfare variables. Children with FAS had significantly decreased mean weight, height, and head circumference. Children with FAS exhibited the most impaired level of general intelligence, significantly worse language-based memory compared with children with ARND, and significantly poorer functional communication skills than children with pFAS. On executive functioning, the FAS group of children performed significantly worse on sequencing and shift than either the pFAS or ARND groups. Children with pFAS and ARND were similar in all neurodevelopmental domains that were tested.
The children who met tightly defined physical criteria for a diagnosis of FAS demonstrated significantly poorer neurodevelopmental functioning than children with pFAS and ARND. Children in these latter 2 groups were similar in all neurodevelopmental domains that were tested.

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Available from: Anne Wells, Apr 22, 2014
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    • "Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) encompass a constellation of physical and cognitive abnormalities that result from prenatal alcohol exposure in humans (Chasnoff, Wells, Telford, Schmidt, & Messer, 2010; Jones, 2011; Mattson, Crocker, & Nguyen, 2011). Afflicted individuals may exhibit a variety of structural and functional neurological deficits, including impaired executive function, attention, and learning and memory (Mattson et al., 2011; Niccols, 2007). "
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    Developmental Psychobiology 03/2014; 56. DOI:10.1002/dev.21210 · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    • "It is considered the leading preventable cause of congenital defects and mental impairment [11]. Patients with fetal alcohol syndrome often develop persistent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, in all of its subtypes [4] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] (62% of all children with fetal alcohol syndrome in the study of Landgren et al.) [16]. Although some studies have compared cerebral cortical thickness by means of structural brain magnetic resonance imaging between patients with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders or fetal alcohol syndrome and control subjects, and between patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and control subjects, to the best of our knowledge, no studies have compared control subjects with patients manifesting attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and fetal alcohol syndrome or patients without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, even though attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is such a common comorbidity [15-20]. "
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    • "afflicted children along the FASD continuum are diagnosed with FAS, which has a birth prevalence of 2–7 per 1000 births in the United States [4]. At the opposite end of the spectrum, alcoholrelated neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) refers to children that express the mental but not physical abnormalities associated with early alcohol exposure [5]. In fact, the estimated number of FASD children may be up to 10 times higher than reported due to difficulties in diagnosing ARND children in the absence of physical dysmorphology [6] [7]. "
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