Article

M1 protein allows Group A streptococcal survival in phagocyte extracellular traps through cathelicidin inhibition.

Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, Calif. 92093-0687, USA.
Journal of Innate Immunity (Impact Factor: 4.56). 01/2009; 1(3):202-14. DOI: 10.1159/000203645
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT M1 protein contributes to Group A Streptococcus (GAS) systemic virulence by interfering with phagocytosis and through proinflammatory activities when released from the cell surface. Here we identify a novel role of M1 protein in the stimulation of neutrophil and mast cell extracellular trap formation, yet also subsequent survival of the pathogen within these DNA-based innate defense structures. Targeted mutagenesis and heterologous expression studies demonstrate M1 protein promotes resistance to the human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL-37, an important effector of bacterial killing within such phagocyte extracellular traps. Studies with purified recombinant protein fragments mapped the inhibition of cathelicidin killing to the M1 hypervariable N-terminal domain. A survey of GAS clinical isolates found that strains from patients with necrotizing fasciitis or toxic shock syndrome were significantly more likely to be resistant to cathelicidin than GAS M types not associated with invasive disease; M1 isolates were uniformly resistant. We conclude increased resistance to host cathelicidin and killing within phagocyte extracellular traps contribute to the propensity of M1 GAS strains to produce invasive infections.

0 Followers
 · 
131 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Group A Streptococcus (GAS) responds to subinhibitory concentrations of LL-37 by upregulation of virulence factors through the CsrRS (CovRS) two-component system. The signaling mechanism, however, is unclear. To determine whether LL-37 signaling reflects specific binding to CsrS or rather a non-specific response to LL-37-mediated membrane damage, we tested LL-37 fragments for CsrRS signaling and for GAS antimicrobial activity. We identified a 10-residue fragment (RI-10) of LL-37 as the minimal peptide that retains the ability to signal increased expression of GAS virulence factors, yet it has no detectable antimicrobial activity against GAS. Substitution of individual key amino acids in RI-10 reduced or abrogated signaling. These data do not support the hypothesis that CsrS detects LL-37-induced damage to the bacterial cell membrane, but rather suggest that LL-37-signaling is mediated by a direct interaction with CsrS. To test whether LL-37 binds to CsrS, we used the purified CsrS extracellular domain to pull down LL-37 in vitro, a result that provides further evidence that LL-37 binds to CsrS. The dissociation of CsrS-mediated signaling from membrane damage by LL-37 fragments together with in vitro evidence for a direct LL-37-CsrS binding interaction constitute compelling evidence that signal transduction by LL-37 through CsrS reflects a direct ligand/receptor interaction.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2014; 289(52). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.605394 · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial peptides, or AMPs, play a significant role in many environments as a tool to remove competing organisms. In response, many bacteria have evolved mechanisms to resist these peptides and prevent AMP-mediated killing. The development of AMP resistance mechanisms is driven by direct competition between bacterial species, as well as host and pathogen interactions. Akin to the number of different AMPs found in nature, resistance mechanisms that have evolved are just as varied and may confer broad-range resistance or specific resistance to AMPs. Specific mechanisms of AMP resistance prevent AMP-mediated killing against a single type of AMP, while broad resistance mechanisms often lead to a global change in the bacterial cell surface and protect the bacterium from a large group of AMPs that have similar characteristics. AMP resistance mechanisms can be found in many species of bacteria and can provide a competitive edge against other bacterial species or a host immune response. Gram-positive bacteria are one of the largest AMP producing groups, but characterization of Gram-positive AMP resistance mechanisms lags behind that of Gram-negative species. In this review we present a summary of the AMP resistance mechanisms that have been identified and characterized in Gram-positive bacteria. Understanding the mechanisms of AMP resistance in Gram-positive species can provide guidelines in developing and applying AMPs as therapeutics, and offer insight into the role of resistance in bacterial pathogenesis.
    10/2014; 3(4):461-492. DOI:10.3390/antibiotics3040461
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: MΦ are multipurpose phagocytes with a large repertoire of well-characterized abilities and functions, including regulation of inflammation, wound healing, maintenance of tissue homeostasis, as well as serving as an integral component of the innate-immune defense against microbial pathogens. Working along with neutrophils and dendritic cells, the other myeloid-derived professional phagocytes, MΦ are one of the key effector cells initiating and directing the host reaction to pathogenic organisms and resolving subsequent responses once the threat has been cleared. ETs are a relatively novel strategy of host defense involving expulsion of nuclear material and embedded proteins from immune cells to immobilize and kill bacteria, fungi, and viruses. As research on ETs expands, it has begun to encompass many immune cell types in unexpected ways, including various types of MΦ, which are not only capable of generating METs in response to various stimuli, but recent preclinical data suggest that they are an important agent in clearing ETs and limiting ET-mediated inflammation and tissue damage. This review aims to summarize historical and recent findings of biologic research regarding ET formation and function and discuss the role of MΦ in ET physiology and associated pathologies. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.
    Journal of leukocyte biology 04/2015; DOI:10.1189/jlb.4RI1014-521R · 4.99 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
33 Downloads
Available from
Aug 3, 2014