Incidence and clinical correlation of intracranial hemorrhages observed by 3-tesla gradient echo T(2)*-weighted images following intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and clinical correlation of intracranial hemorrhages (ICHs) detected by 3-tesla gradient echo T(2)*-weighted images after intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) administration.
We included 43 consecutive patients with anterior-circulation ischemia who underwent MRI studies before and after thrombolysis. Each hemorrhage was classified as a hemorrhagic infarction (HI) or parenchymal hemorrhage (PH) according to the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study definition. The clinical outcome was defined as an improvement (> or =4-point reduction) or deterioration (> or =4-point increase) based on a comparison between the initial and the 30-day NIHSS scores.
The incidence of ICHs was 58%, and the HI rate was 52%; both were higher than the rates reported in the literature. Most of the patients with HI improved clinically, and these patients had second MRAs that showed recanalization. None of the patients with PH demonstrated improvement.
Three-tesla MRI may reveal a higher frequency of HI type hemorrhages than lower-field MRIs, and HI may be a predictor of good recovery by reflecting the presence of recanalization. The rate of PH in our study was low compared to other studies, probably due to the lower dosage of rt-PA.
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ABSTRACT: Based on previous studies comparing different recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) doses, we performed a clinical trial with 0.6 mg/kg, which is lower than the internationally approved dosage of 0.9 mg/kg, aiming to assess the efficacy and safety of alteplase in acute ischemic stroke for the Japanese. Our prospective, multicenter, single-arm, open-label trial was designed with a target sample size of 100 patients. The primary end points were the proportion of patients with a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0 to 1 at 3 months and the incidence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) within 36 hours. Thresholds for these end points were determined by calculating 90% CIs of weighted averages derived from published reports. The protocol was defined according to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) rt-PA stroke study with slight modifications. Among the 103 patients enrolled, 38 had an mRS of 0 to 1 at 3 months; this proportion (36.9%) exceeded the predetermined threshold of 33.9%. sICH within 36 hours occurred in 6 patients; this incidence (5.8%) was lower than the threshold of 9.6%. In patients receiving 0.6 mg/kg alteplase, the outcome and the incidence of sICH were comparable to published data for 0.9 mg/kg. These findings indicate that alteplase, when administered at 0.6 mg/kg to Japanese patients, might offer a clinical efficacy and safety that are compatible with data reported in North America and the European Union for a 0.9 mg/kg dose.Stroke 08/2006; 37(7):1810-5. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: MRI has been increasingly used in the evaluation of acute stroke patients. However, MRI must be able to detect early hemorrhage to be the only imaging screen used before treatment such as thrombolysis. Susceptibility-weighted imaging, an echo-planar T2* sequence, can show intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in patients imaged between 2.5 and 5 hours from symptom onset. It is unknown whether MRI can detect ICH earlier than 2.5 hours. We describe 5 patients with ICH who had MRI between 23 and 120 minutes from symptom onset and propose diagnostic patterns of evolution of hyperacute ICH on MRI. As part of our acute imaging protocol, all patients with acute stroke within 24 hours from symptom onset were imaged with a set of sequences that included susceptibility-weighted imaging, diffusion- and perfusion-weighted imaging, T1- and T2-weighted imaging, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), and MR angiography using echo-planar techniques. Five patients with ICH had MRI between 23 and 120 minutes from the onset of symptoms. ICH was identified in all patients. Distinctive patterns of hyperacute ICH and absence of signs of ischemic stroke were the hallmark features of this diagnosis. The hyperacute hematoma appears to be composed of 3 distinct areas: (1) center: isointense to hyperintense heterogeneous signal on susceptibility-weighted and T2-weighted imaging; (2) periphery: hypointense (susceptibility effect) on susceptibility-weighted and T2-weighted imaging; and (3) rim: hypointense on T1-weighted imaging and hyperintense on T2-weighted imaging, representing vasogenic edema encasing the hematoma. MRI is able to detect hyperacute ICH and show a pattern of evolution of the hematoma within 2 hours from the onset of symptoms.Stroke 12/1999; 30(11):2263-7. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Intravenous administration of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) can improve clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke. The most important complication of t-PA therapy is intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The aim of this study was to use serial MRI studies to identify independent predictors of symptomatic and asymptomatic ICH after t-PA therapy. Consecutive anterior-circulation ischemic stroke patients treated with t-PA within 3 h of stroke onset were studied prospectively. To identify the presence of recanalization in the occluded arteries and the presence of ICH, MRI, including diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), T2*, and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), was performed before and 1 h, 24 h, and 5-7 days after t-PA thrombolysis. The independent predictors of ICH were determined using multivariate logistic regression analysis. 41 patients (21 males, 20 females; mean age, 73.2+/-10.7 years) were enrolled, and 19 ICHs (1 symptomatic, 18 asymptomatic) were observed on T2*. The initial MRA demonstrated occluded brain arteries in 31 patients (75.6%), of which follow-up MRA at 1 h, 24 h, and 5-7 days after t-PA therapy revealed recanalization in 48.4%, 80.0%, and 90.0% of patients, respectively. The frequency of recanalization within 1 h after t-PA therapy did not differ between ICH and No-ICH groups, but the ICH group had more frequent recanalization between 1 h and 24 h after t-PA than the No-ICH group (50.0% vs. 4.5%, P=0.001). The ICH group had arterial fibrillation (AF) more frequently than the No-ICH group (78.9% vs. 27.3%, P=0.001). Compared to the No-ICH group, the NIHSS score was higher (16.4+/-5.7 vs. 11.5+/-6.5, P=0.011) and the ASPECTS-DWI value (a normal DWI has an ASPECTS-DWI value of 11 points) was lower (7.3+/-2.4 vs. 8.9+/-1.9, P=0.019) in the ICH group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the presence of recanalization between 1 and 24 h after the end of t-PA infusion (OR: 20.2; CI: 1.0-340.9; P=0.037) was the only independent predictor of ICH. Recanalization of occluded arteries between 1 and 24 h but not within 1 h after t-PA infusion should be independently associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic ICH after t-PA therapy.Journal of the Neurological Sciences 08/2008; 270(1-2):48-52. · 2.24 Impact Factor