Regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis by an ER-bound transcription factor, CREBH.
ABSTRACT Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-bound transcription factor families are shown to be involved in the control of various metabolic pathways. Here, we report a critical function of ER-bound transcription factor, CREBH, in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Expression of CREBH is markedly induced by fasting or in the insulin-resistant state in rodents in a dexamethasone- and PGC-1alpha-dependent manner, which results in the accumulation of active nuclear form of CREBH (CREBH-N). Overexpression of constitutively active CREBH activates transcription of PEPCK-C or G6Pase by binding to its enhancer site that is distinct from the well-characterized CREB/CRTC2 regulatory sequences in vivo. Of interest, knockdown of CREBH in liver significantly reduces blood glucose levels without altering expression of genes involved in the ER stress signaling cascades in mice. These data suggest a crucial role for CREBH in the regulation of hepatic glucose metabolism in mammals.
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ABSTRACT: The genetic underpinnings of both normal and pathological variation in plasma triglyceride (TG) concentration are relatively well understood compared to many other complex metabolic traits. For instance, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed 32 common variants that are associated with plasma TG concentrations in healthy epidemiologic populations. Furthermore, GWAS in clinically ascertained hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) patients have shown that almost all of the same TG-raising alleles from epidemiologic samples are also associated with HTG disease status, and that greater accumulation of these alleles reflects the severity of the HTG phenotype. Finally, comprehensive resequencing studies show a burden of rare variants in some of these same genes - namely in LPL, GCKR, APOB and APOA5 - in HTG patients compared to normolipidemic controls. A more complete understanding of the genes and genetic variants associated with plasma TG concentration will enrich our understanding of the molecular pathways that modulate plasma TG metabolism, which may translate into clinical benefit. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Triglyceride Metabolism and Disease.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 10/2011; 1821(5):833-42. · 4.66 Impact Factor