Glycemic control and burnt-out diabetes in ESRD.
ABSTRACT Treatment of early diabetes mellitus, the most common cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD), may prevent or slow the progression of diabetic nephropathy and lower mortality and the incidence of cardiovascular disease in the general diabetic population and in patients with early stages of CKD. It is unclear whether glycemic control in patients with advanced CKD, including those with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who undergo maintenance dialysis treatment is beneficial. Aside from the uncertain benefits of treatment in ESRD, hypoglycemic interventions in this population are also complicated by the complex changes in glucose homeostasis related to decreased kidney function and to dialytic therapies, occasionally leading to spontaneous resolution of hyperglycemia and normalization of hemoglobin A1c levels, a condition which might be termed "burnt-out diabetes." Further difficulties in ESRD are posed by the complicated pharmacokinetics of antidiabetic medications and the serious flaws in our available diagnostic tools used for monitoring long-term glycemic control. We review the physiology and pathophysiology of glucose homeostasis in advanced CKD and ESRD, the available antidiabetic medications and their specifics related to kidney function, and the diagnostic tools used to monitor the severity of hyperglycemia and the therapeutic effects of available treatments, along with their deficiencies in ESRD. We also review the concept of burnt-out diabetes and summarize the findings of studies that examined outcomes related to glycemic control in diabetic ESRD patients, and emphasize areas in need of further research.
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ABSTRACT: The relationship between glycated haemoglobin and the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in patients with diabetes remains uncertain, especially in those with decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The aim of this study was to assess the appropriate HbA(1c) level for diabetics for minimizing the incidence of ESRD and all-cause mortality. A cohort of patients aged 25 years or older who had been treated for diabetes was generated from the Seoul National University Bundang Hospital database using diagnosis code and prescribed medication during 2004. The 4474 patients were classified into three groups according to the baseline HbA(1c) in 2004 (HbA(1c) < 6.50%, 6.50-7.49% and ≥ 7.50%; termed groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively). The outcomes were extracted from the database of Statistics Korea for mortality and registry in the Korean Society of Nephrology for ESRD incidence. Ninety patients developed ESRD during 5.29 ± 1.22 years of mean follow-up period. Group 1 patients showed the lowest incidence of ESRD (P = 0.003). Compared with this group, the adjusted hazard ratio of ESRD was 2.915 and 4.219 in groups 2 and 3, respectively. The incidence of ESRD increased in patients with HbA(1c) ≥ 6.50% compared with the patients with HbA(1c) < 6.50%, regardless of GFR. However, HbA(1c) < 6.50% showed no benefit on ESRD development in patients older than 80 years and in patients with diabetic duration > 10 years. All-cause mortality was not associated with the level of HbA(1c). HbA(1c) < 6.50% was associated with reduced development of ESRD in all patients and later stages of chronic kidney disease.Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 11/2010; 26(7):2238-44. · 3.40 Impact Factor