Advancing Alcohol Biomarkers Research
ABSTRACT Biomarkers to detect past alcohol use and identify alcohol-related diseases have long been pursued as important tools for research into alcohol use disorders as well as for clinical and treatment applications and other settings. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) sponsored a workshop titled "Workshop on Biomarkers for Alcohol-Induced Disorders" in June 2008. The intent of this workshop was to review and discuss recent progress in the development and implementation of biomarkers for alcohol use and alcohol-related disorders with a goal to formulate a set of recommendations to use to stimulate and advance research progress in this critical area of alcoholism research. Presentations at this workshop reviewed the current status of alcohol biomarkers, providing a summary of the history of biomarkers and the major goals of alcohol biomarker research. Moreover, presentations provided a comprehensive overview of the current status of several well-recognized biomarkers of alcohol use, a summary of recent studies to characterize novel biomarkers and their validation, along with perspectives and experiences from other NIH institutes and from other federal agencies and industry, related to regulatory issues. Following these presentations, a panel discussion focused on a set of issues presented by the organizers of this workshop. These discussion points addressed: (i) issues related to strategies to be adopted to stimulate biomarker discovery and application, (ii) the relevance of animal studies in biomarker development and the status of biomarkers in basic science studies, and (iii) issues related to the opportunities for clinical and commercial applications. This article summarizes these perspectives and highlights topics that constituted the basis for recommendations to enhance alcohol biomarker research.
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ABSTRACT: Despite extensive research, a direct correlation between low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders has been elusive. Conflicting results have been attributed to a lack of accurate and detailed data on PAE and incomplete information on contributing factors. The public health effectiveness of policies that recommend complete abstinence from alcohol during pregnancy as the safest option is challenged by the high frequency of unplanned pregnancies, with many women having consumed some alcohol prior to pregnancy recognition. There is a need for research evidence with an emphasis on timing and dosage of PAE and its effects on the health of offspring.BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 09/2014; 14(1):302. DOI:10.1186/1471-2393-14-302 · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown that gene regulation is far more complex than previously believed and does not completely explain changes at the protein level. Therefore, the direct study of the proteome, considerably different in both complexity and dynamicity to the genome/transcriptome, has provided unique insights to an increasing number of researchers. During the past decade, extraordinary advances in proteomic techniques have changed the way we can analyze the composition, regulation and function of protein complexes and pathways underlying altered neurobiological conditions. When combined with complementary approaches, these advances provide the contextual information for decoding large datasets into meaningful biological adaptive processes. Neuroproteomics offers potential breakthroughs in the field of alcohol research by leading to a deeper understanding of how alcohol globally affects protein structure, function, interactions, and networks. The wealth of information gained from these advances can help pinpoint relevant biomarkers for early diagnosis and improved prognosis of alcoholism and identify future pharmacological targets for the treatment of this addiction.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 31 July 2013. doi:10.1038/npp.2013.182.Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 07/2013; 39(1). DOI:10.1038/npp.2013.182 · 7.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ethyl sulfate, a minor and direct ethanol metabolite in adult human body, has been implicated as a biomarker for alcohol consumption and in utero exposure to ethanol. To understand better the physiological relevance of the sulfation of ethanol, it is important to clarify the cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULT) enzymes that are responsible for ethanol sulfation. The present study aimed to identify the major ethanol-sulfating human SULTs and to investigate the sulfation of ethanol under the metabolic setting. A systematic analysis revealed four ethanol-sulfating SULTs, SULT1A1, SULT1A2, SULT1A3, and SULT1C4, among the eleven human SULT enzymes previously prepared and purified. A metabolic labeling study demonstrated the generation and release of ethyl [(35)S]sulfate in a concentration-dependent manner by HepG2 human hepatoma cells labeled with [(35)S]sulfate in the presence of different concentrations of ethanol. Cytosol or S9 fractions of human lung, liver, and small intestine were examined to verify the presence of ethanol-sulfating activity in vivo. Of the three human organs, the small intestine displayed the highest activity.Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 01/2012; 35(12):2180-5. DOI:10.1248/bpb.b12-00547 · 1.78 Impact Factor