Thyroid Cancer in Childhood: A Retrospective Review of Childhood Course
ABSTRACT Thyroid cancer (TC) is an uncommon childhood malignancy, but the incidence may be increasing. Recent American Thyroid Association guidelines focus primarily on adult data. Natural history studies of TC in childhood are important to determine outcomes. The objectives of this study were to describe the demographics and outcomes in children with TC treated at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, from 1983 to 2006. We hypothesized that childhood TC was increasing at our institution.
Cases of papillary TC (PTC) (including follicular variant PTC) and follicular TC (FTC) were identified from pathology databases. Chart review was performed, and data were extracted on clinical, treatment, and outcome variables.
Sixty-one cases were identified, and complete data were available in 54, including 36 girls and 18 boys. There was no statistical change in numbers of cases diagnosed yearly during the study period. Younger children were more likely to have metastases at presentation or during follow-up. Pathological TC diagnosis included 40 PTC, 1 diffuse-sclerosing papillary, 7 follicular variant PTC, and 6 FTC. There was no difference in pathology findings between children less than or greater than 10 years old. Five patients had a history of previous malignancy, and five had a history of previous thyroid conditions. Three patients were born in areas of high TC endemnicity. Twenty-three patients had thyroiditis on pathology examination. All patients underwent total thyroidectomy, and 53/54 patients received therapeutic radioactive iodine ablation. Twenty-seven patients had metastases at presentation (19 lymph nodes only, 2 lung only, and 6 lymph node and distant) and 6 developed distant metastases during follow-up (3 lung, 2 thymus, and 1 paraspinal). Male sex was associated with development of metastases during follow-up. On multiple regression, tumor size was predicted positively by PTC but not by age, sex, or metastases at presentation or during follow-up.
We did not find evidence of increasing numbers of cases of TC diagnosed yearly during the study period, or difference in tumor aggressiveness, or between outcomes in children aged less than or greater than 10 years. Children with metastases at presentation or during follow-up were likely to be younger than children without metastases. There is a need for prospective, collaborative multicenter studies of TC.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Autoimmune thyroiditis has been suggested as a precancerous condition in some adult studies, but there is still controversy. The importance of autoimmune thyroiditis in childhood thyroid cancer is not yet completely clear. We aimed to evaluate in this study the characteristics of childhood thyroid cancer in patients particularly in terms of coexisting factors including autoimmune thyroid disorders (ATD). Twenty patients diagnosed with primary thyroid cancer were evaluated retrospectively in a Pediatric Endocrinology clinic for 10 years. Patients were followed up for 57.22±11 months. Concomitant conditions (thyroidal and/or extra thyroidal) were determined. Most of the patients (80%) had a coexisting factor. ATDs are the most frequently encountered among them (40%). The ages at the time of diagnosis were older; and the tumor sizes were smaller in patients with concomitant ATDs than without autoimmune thyroid disorders. The follow-up characteristics were similar in both groups. In conclusion, ATDs are frequently encountered in association with thyroid cancer during childhood and adolescence. A thyroid autoimmunity may facilitate the development of a malignant thyroid tumor; on the other hand, increased attention to the thyroid gland may facilitate frequent diagnosis of thyroid cancer. A close follow-up of ATD patients should also include the evaluation of the development of thyroid malignancy.Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism: JPEM 05/2014; 27(9-10). DOI:10.1515/jpem-2013-0273 · 0.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Goal: To evaluate the impact of iodine-131 therapy received during childhood and adolescence and correlate it with the quality of life in these patients. Methods: We studied 19 patients diagnosed with cancer in childhood or adolescence who underwent thyroidectomy and supplemental therapy with I-131. We also recruited a control group of healthy subjects with the same demographic parameters. All patients were subjected to a scintigraphy examination of the salivary glands, and were also asked to complete a questionnaire in order to assess their overall quality of life. In addition, a more specific questionnaire for patients with head and neck cancer was also given to all study participants. Results: The quantitative and qualitative analyzes of the salivary glands showed functional deficits with greater involvement of the parotid gland for volume, concentration and excretion. The right submandibular gland showed significant changes for volume in the patient group. The questionnaires made it possible to observe significant differences between the patient and control groups for symptoms such as thick saliva, dry mouth and speech problems. Conclusion: In spite of being very effective and widely used, iodine radionuclide therapy is correlated with a lower quality of life in young people.Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology 04/2014; 5(5):409-417.
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ABSTRACT: The overall prognosis in pediatric differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is excellent. Recurrent disease is frequent, however, and requires additional treatment. We analyzed the probability of recurrence, prognostic factors, treatment, and outcome of juvenile DTC. Fifty-one DTC patients (32 girls and 19 boys; ≤20 y old; mean age, 16.5 y) were treated with (131)I (radioiodine, or radioactive iodine [RAI]); the median follow-up was 10 y. Patients underwent different initial treatments: 46 patients received total thyroidectomy and RAI, 3 patients received total thyroidectomy, and 3 patients received subtotal thyroidectomy. The probability of recurrence and prognostic factors were tested with the Kaplan-Meier method. Initially, 36 of 51 patients achieved complete remission, 14 of 51 achieved partial remission, and 1 of 51 had progressive disease. By the follow-up, 11 of 51 patients (21.6%) had developed recurrent disease; the median appearance time was 4 y (range, 1-15 y). The probabilities of recurrence were 16.7% at 5 y, 22.3% at 10 y, and 33.3% at 15 and 23 y after the initial treatments. Factors that were strongly predictive of recurrence were age (P = 0.001), initial treatment (P = 0.0001), and tumor multifocality (P = 0.011). Sex, nodal metastases at presentation, distal metastases at presentation, histologic type of the tumor, T stage, and clinical stage had no influence on relapse (P = 0.180, P = 0.786, P = 0.796, P = 0.944, P = 0.352, and P = 0.729, respectively). Patients with recurrent disease, partial remission, and progressive disease were retreated, with either surgery or surgery and RAI, receiving cumulative activities of up to 40 GBq. The overall outcome in our patients was excellent: 90.2% complete remission, 3.92% partial remission, 1.96% stable disease, 1.96% disease-related death, and 1.96% another cause of death. Younger age at diagnosis, less radical primary surgery without subsequent RAI, and tumor multifocality are factors that are strongly prognostic for recurrence. For reducing the rate of relapse and improving surveillance for recurrent disease, total thyroidectomy followed by RAI appears to be the most beneficial initial treatment for patients with juvenile DTC. The use of RAI seems to be safe, with no adverse effects on subsequent fertility and pregnancy or secondary malignancy.Journal of Nuclear Medicine 04/2014; 55(5). DOI:10.2967/jnumed.113.130450 · 5.56 Impact Factor