Thyroid cancer (TC) is an uncommon childhood malignancy, but the incidence may be increasing. Recent American Thyroid Association guidelines focus primarily on adult data. Natural history studies of TC in childhood are important to determine outcomes. The objectives of this study were to describe the demographics and outcomes in children with TC treated at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, from 1983 to 2006. We hypothesized that childhood TC was increasing at our institution.
Cases of papillary TC (PTC) (including follicular variant PTC) and follicular TC (FTC) were identified from pathology databases. Chart review was performed, and data were extracted on clinical, treatment, and outcome variables.
Sixty-one cases were identified, and complete data were available in 54, including 36 girls and 18 boys. There was no statistical change in numbers of cases diagnosed yearly during the study period. Younger children were more likely to have metastases at presentation or during follow-up. Pathological TC diagnosis included 40 PTC, 1 diffuse-sclerosing papillary, 7 follicular variant PTC, and 6 FTC. There was no difference in pathology findings between children less than or greater than 10 years old. Five patients had a history of previous malignancy, and five had a history of previous thyroid conditions. Three patients were born in areas of high TC endemnicity. Twenty-three patients had thyroiditis on pathology examination. All patients underwent total thyroidectomy, and 53/54 patients received therapeutic radioactive iodine ablation. Twenty-seven patients had metastases at presentation (19 lymph nodes only, 2 lung only, and 6 lymph node and distant) and 6 developed distant metastases during follow-up (3 lung, 2 thymus, and 1 paraspinal). Male sex was associated with development of metastases during follow-up. On multiple regression, tumor size was predicted positively by PTC but not by age, sex, or metastases at presentation or during follow-up.
We did not find evidence of increasing numbers of cases of TC diagnosed yearly during the study period, or difference in tumor aggressiveness, or between outcomes in children aged less than or greater than 10 years. Children with metastases at presentation or during follow-up were likely to be younger than children without metastases. There is a need for prospective, collaborative multicenter studies of TC.
"The initial treatment for DTC is surgical, with total thyroidectomy, with or without dissection of the associated lymph node. Complementary therapy with radioactive iodine is an almost universal approach because it is efficient, accessible and well tolerated  . Salivary glands concentrate iodine by substituting iodine as a substrate for the Na + /K + /Cl − co-transport system. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Goal: To evaluate the impact of iodine-131 therapy received during childhood and adolescence and correlate it with the quality of life in these patients. Methods: We studied 19 patients diagnosed with cancer in childhood or adolescence who underwent thyroidectomy and supplemental therapy with I-131. We also recruited a control group of healthy subjects with the same demographic parameters. All patients were subjected to a scintigraphy examination of the salivary glands, and were also asked to complete a questionnaire in order to assess their overall quality of life. In addition, a more specific questionnaire for patients with head and neck cancer was also given to all study participants. Results: The quantitative and qualitative analyzes of the salivary glands showed functional deficits with greater involvement of the parotid gland for volume, concentration and excretion. The right submandibular gland showed significant changes for volume in the patient group. The questionnaires made it possible to observe significant differences between the patient and control groups for symptoms such as thick saliva, dry mouth and speech problems. Conclusion: In spite of being very effective and widely used, iodine radionuclide therapy is correlated with a lower quality of life in young people.
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology 04/2014; 5(5):409-417.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem, and differentiated thyroid cancer is becoming increasingly prevalent. Since the publication of the American Thyroid Association's guidelines for the management of these disorders was published in 2006, a large amount of new information has become available, prompting a revision of the guidelines.
Relevant articles through December 2008 were reviewed by the task force and categorized by topic and level of evidence according to a modified schema used by the United States Preventative Services Task Force.
The revised guidelines for the management of thyroid nodules include recommendations regarding initial evaluation, clinical and ultrasound criteria for fine-needle aspiration biopsy, interpretation of fine-needle aspiration biopsy results, and management of benign thyroid nodules. Recommendations regarding the initial management of thyroid cancer include those relating to optimal surgical management, radioiodine remnant ablation, and suppression therapy using levothyroxine. Recommendations related to long-term management of differentiated thyroid cancer include those related to surveillance for recurrent disease using ultrasound and serum thyroglobulin as well as those related to management of recurrent and metastatic disease.
We created evidence-based recommendations in response to our appointment as an independent task force by the American Thyroid Association to assist in the clinical management of patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. They represent, in our opinion, contemporary optimal care for patients with these disorders.
Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association 11/2009; 19(11):1167-214. DOI:10.1089/thy.2009.0110 · 4.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Papillary thyroid carcinoma has a favorable outcome in children. Recent experience with young children cases with early recurrences, after the total thyroidectomy and excision of palpable lymph nodes, in contrast to usual course of disease in adolescent cases, prompted us to review our experience on papillary carcinoma surgery.
Sixteen children who underwent surgery for papillary carcinoma between 1997 and 2010 were included. The charts and surgery notes were evaluated retrospectively and age, sex, complaints and physical findings at presentation, past medical history, results of laboratory tests, imaging findings, aspiration biopsy, extent of disease, details of surgery, complications and postoperative course were noted.
Male to female ratio was 3:1. The mean age was 10.9 years (range, 5-16). The presenting symptom was palpable swelling in the neck (n = 12) or asymptomatic nodule was detected incidentally (n = 4). Physical examination findings were palpable nodule (n = 7), lymphadenopathy (n = 6) or both (n = 4). Thyroid ultrasound (US) revealed nodule (n = 9), heterogenisity of the parenchyma and enlargement of thyroid (n = 9), and microcalcifications (n = 5). Fine-needle aspiration biopsy was performed in 12 patients and was suggestive for malignancy in most cases (91%). Pulmonary metastasis was detected at presentation in two patients and appeared after thyroidectomy in one patient. Complementary thyroidectomy was performed in nine patients because the total thyroidectomy with or without cervical lymph node dissection was the treatment of choice (n = 15). Iodine scan was performed 4 weeks later following thyroidectomy. Radioactive iodine ablation (RIA) therapy was given to 11 patients who had residual or recurrent disease. Postoperative complications were permanent hypoparathyroidism (n = 4), recurrent laryngeal nerve injury (n = 3), lymphorea (n = 1) and Horner's syndrome (n = 1).
Total thyroidectomy and excision of affected lymph nodes is the current mode of surgical management for thyroid papillary carcinoma in children. However, especially in young children (<10 years), modified lymph node dissection should be added to total thyroidectomy in order to avoid leaving the residual tumor foci which can impair the efficacy of the ablation therapy.
Pediatric Surgery International 05/2011; 27(9):931-6. DOI:10.1007/s00383-011-2932-2 · 1.00 Impact Factor
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