Thyroid cancer in childhood: a retrospective review of childhood course.

The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada.
Thyroid: official journal of the American Thyroid Association (Impact Factor: 2.6). 04/2010; 20(4):375-80. DOI: 10.1089/thy.2009.0386
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Thyroid cancer (TC) is an uncommon childhood malignancy, but the incidence may be increasing. Recent American Thyroid Association guidelines focus primarily on adult data. Natural history studies of TC in childhood are important to determine outcomes. The objectives of this study were to describe the demographics and outcomes in children with TC treated at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, from 1983 to 2006. We hypothesized that childhood TC was increasing at our institution.
Cases of papillary TC (PTC) (including follicular variant PTC) and follicular TC (FTC) were identified from pathology databases. Chart review was performed, and data were extracted on clinical, treatment, and outcome variables.
Sixty-one cases were identified, and complete data were available in 54, including 36 girls and 18 boys. There was no statistical change in numbers of cases diagnosed yearly during the study period. Younger children were more likely to have metastases at presentation or during follow-up. Pathological TC diagnosis included 40 PTC, 1 diffuse-sclerosing papillary, 7 follicular variant PTC, and 6 FTC. There was no difference in pathology findings between children less than or greater than 10 years old. Five patients had a history of previous malignancy, and five had a history of previous thyroid conditions. Three patients were born in areas of high TC endemnicity. Twenty-three patients had thyroiditis on pathology examination. All patients underwent total thyroidectomy, and 53/54 patients received therapeutic radioactive iodine ablation. Twenty-seven patients had metastases at presentation (19 lymph nodes only, 2 lung only, and 6 lymph node and distant) and 6 developed distant metastases during follow-up (3 lung, 2 thymus, and 1 paraspinal). Male sex was associated with development of metastases during follow-up. On multiple regression, tumor size was predicted positively by PTC but not by age, sex, or metastases at presentation or during follow-up.
We did not find evidence of increasing numbers of cases of TC diagnosed yearly during the study period, or difference in tumor aggressiveness, or between outcomes in children aged less than or greater than 10 years. Children with metastases at presentation or during follow-up were likely to be younger than children without metastases. There is a need for prospective, collaborative multicenter studies of TC.

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    ABSTRACT: This paper aims to review controversies in the management of minimally invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma (MIFTC) and to reach an evidence-based consensus. MEDLINE search of the literature was conducted using keywords related to MIFTC. The search term was identified in the title, abstract, or medical subject heading. Available literature meeting the inclusion criteria were assigned the appropriate levels of evidence and recommendations in accordance with accepted international standards. Results were discussed at the 2013 Workshop of the European Society of Endocrine Surgeons devoted to MIFTC. Published papers on MIFTC present inadequate power with a III-IV level of evidence and C grade of recommendation. Several issues demanded a comparison of published studies from different medical reports regarding MIFTC definition, specimen processing, characteristics, diagnosis, prognoses, and therapy. As a consequence, it is difficult to make valuable statements on MIFTC with a sufficient recommendation rating. MIFTC diagnosis requires clearer, unequivocal, and reproducible criteria for pathologist, surgeons, and endocrinologists to use in the management of these patients. If the distinction between MIFTC and WIFTC cannot be made, an expert in thyroid pathologist should be consulted. According to published papers, the following conclusions can be drawn. (a) Candidates for hemithyroidectomy are MIFTC with exclusive capsular invasion, patients <45 years old at presentation, tumor size <40 mm, without vascular invasion, and without any node or distant metastases. (b) Candidates for total thyroidectomy are MIFTC in patients ≥45 years at presentation, tumor size ≥40 mm, vascular invasion present, positive nodes, and positive distant metastases. (c) In the absence of clinical evidence for lymph node metastasis, patients with MIFTC do not require prophylactic lymph node dissection. (d) Radio iodine ablation is indicated in elderly patients (>45 years), large tumor size (>40 mm), extensive vascular invasion, presence of distant synchronous or metachronous metastasis, positive nodes, and if recurrence is noted at follow-up.
    Langenbeck s Archives of Surgery 11/2013; · 1.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Clinical outcome of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in children differs significantly from that of adults. There is no clear explanation of this difference although previous studies have demonstrated a lower prevalence of the BRAFV600E mutation in PTC of children. However, data are limited due to the rarity of this diagnosis. BRAFV600E mutation prevalence and its relationship with outcome in pediatric PTC remain unclear.ProcedureBRAFV600E mutational status was determined in 27 PTC patients less than 22 years of age using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The relationship between BRAFV600E mutation status, patient and tumor characteristics as well as progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed.ResultsBRAFV600E was present in 63% of patients and occurred more often in male patients versus females (P = 0.033). Presence of the mutation did not correlate with any difference in extent of disease at diagnosis, tumor size, capsular invasion, vascular invasion, soft tissue invasion, or margin status. At 10 years, PFS for BRAFV600E positive versus negative patients was 55.5% versus 70.0%, respectively (P = 0.48). Overall survival was 100% and median follow-up was 13.9 years.Conclusions This study of pediatric PTC demonstrates that BRAFV600E mutations occur in children at a rate comparable to adults. We found a correlation of BRAFV600E with the male gender, but no evidence that the mutation correlates with more extensive or aggressive disease. This analysis suggests that differences in disease course of PTC in children versus adults are not strongly dependent upon the presence of the BRAFV600E mutation. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 01/2014; · 2.35 Impact Factor

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