Acta Zoologica Mexicana 01/2009;
Source: DOAJ

ABSTRACT Se describe la vasculatura arterial carotídea-cerebral del gallo doméstico (Gallus gallus Linnaeus). Se utilizaron 10 gallos de 2.5 kg de peso, estirpe Rhode Island, los cuales fueron sometidos a la técnica de conservación replesión vascular. Se concluyó que la anastomosis intercarotídea, la formación de la arteria basilar y la ausencia de las arterias vertebrales son los componentes más sobresalientes de la vasculatura cefálica. Se propone estandarizar la nomenclatura de las diversas estructuras anatómicas y vasculares ligadas a la vasculatura arterial carotídea-cerebral ya que son confusas en las diversas publicaciones.

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Available from: Emilio Arch-Tirado, May 19, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Intrasphenoid and intrasellar segments of the cerebral carotid arteries were dissected in 82 specimens of birds, representing 21 avian orders. The configuration and branching of these carotid segments and the intercarotid anastomosis were observed. A well develop intercarotid anastomosis unites the two carotids directly caudal to the hypophysis in all birds examined except for five specimens of passeriform birds of the Suborder Tyranni. Three principal patterns occur: an H-type having a lengthy transverse anastomosis connecting the carotids; an X-type with the carotids anastomosing side-to-side; and an I-type with the carotids merged into a single longitudinal vessel. Patterns for each species are illustrated. Since ordinarily birds lack a cerebral arterial circle comparable to that of mammals. the intercarotid anastomosis obviously serves as its substitute. Evidence of correlation between asymmetry of caudal rami of the cerebral carotids and form of the intercarotid anastomosis is presented. A communication between cerebral carotids caudal to the hypophysis seems to be a deep-rooted vertebrate characteristic. An intercarotid anastomosis, apparently homologous to that of birds, occurs in a number of cartilaginous fishes, reptiles, and mammals. In mammals the intercarotid anastomosis is a communication between right and left posterior hypophyseal arteries.
    American Journal of Anatomy 01/1968; 122(1):1-18. DOI:10.1002/aja.1001220102
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    ABSTRACT: Artiodactyls and felids have a carotid rete that can cool the blood destined for the brain and consequently the brain itself if the cavernous sinus receives cool blood returning from the nose. This condition is usually fulfilled in resting and moderately hyperthermic animals. During severe exercise hyperthermia, however, the venous return from the nose bypasses the cavernous sinus so that brain cooling is suppressed. This is irreconcilable with the assumption that the purpose of selective brain cooling (SBC) is to protect the brain from thermal damage. Alternatively, SBC is seen as a mechanism engaging the thermoregulatory system in a water-saving economy mode in which evaporative heat loss is inhibited by the effects of SBC on brain temperature sensors. In nonhuman mammals that do not have a carotid rete, no evidence exists of whole-brain cooling. However, the surface of the cavernous sinus is in close contact with the base of the brain and is the likely source of unregulated regional cooling of the rostral brain stem in some species. In humans, the cortical regions next to the inner surface of the cranium are very likely to receive some regional cooling via the scalp-sinus pathway, and the rostral base of the brain can be cooled by conduction to the nearby respiratory tract; mechanisms capable of cooling the brain as a whole have not been found. Studies using conventional laboratory techniques suggest that SBC exists in birds and is determined by the physical conditions of heat transfer from the head to the environment instead of physiological control mechanisms. Thus except for species possessing a carotid rete, neither a coherent pattern of SBC nor a unifying concept of its biological significance in mammals and birds has evolved.
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    ABSTRACT: 1.Brain (hypothalamic) and colonic temperatures were measured in twenty adult pigeons (Columba livia) whose mean body mass was 0.377 kg.2.In contrals, in sham operated birds, and in those pigeons in which one or both external ophthalmic arteries were occluded brain temperatures were always about 1°C (0.94 to 1.03) below body temperature (Fig. 2) over a range of air temperatures.3.In pigeons in which arterial flow to theretia was totally blocked, the normal pattern of body-to-brain temperature difference wasreversed, such that brain temperature was always higher than body temperature by a mean of 0.36 °C (Fig. 2, Table 1).4.Therete mirabile ophthalmicum of pigeons plays a central role in the maintenance of the body-to-brain temperature difference which may be important in avoiding brain damage during core hyperthermia.
    Journal of Comparative Physiology B 01/1979; 129(2):119-122. DOI:10.1007/BF00798175 · 2.62 Impact Factor
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