Survival of Patients with Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Treated with Radiation and Temozolomide in Research Studies in the United States

Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. .
Clinical Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 8.19). 04/2010; 16(8):2443-9. DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-3106
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Novel agents are currently combined with radiation and temozolomide (RT + TMZ) in newly diagnosed glioblastoma using overall survival as the primary end point. Results of these phase II studies are typically compared with the phase III European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) survival data that resulted in RT + TMZ becoming standard therapy.
The New Approaches to Brain Tumor Therapy (NABTT) Consortium assigned 365 patients with glioblastoma to four single-cohort studies with similar eligibility criteria. Patients received RT + TMZ with talampanel (n = 72), poly-ICLC (n = 97), or cilengitide (n = 112) or RT + TMZ alone with monitoring of CD4 counts (n = 84). Overall survival of those ages 18 to 70 years with glioblastoma was compared with published EORTC data.
NABTT and EORTC patients had comparable performance status and debulking surgery. Median, 12-month, and 24-month survival rates for the EORTC patients (n = 287) and the comparable NABTT patients receiving RT + TMZ and novel agents (n = 244) are 14.6 versus 19.6 months, 61% versus 81%, and 27% versus 37%, respectively. This represents a 37% reduction in odds of death (P < 0.0001) through 2 years of follow-up. NABTT and EORTC patients receiving only RT + TMZ had similar survival.
Newly diagnosed glioblastoma treated recently with RT + TMZ and talampanel, poly-ICLC, or cilengitide had significantly longer survival than similar patients treated with only RT + TMZ accrued internationally from 2000 to 2002. These differences could result from the novel agents or changing patterns of care. Until the reasons for these different survival rates are clarified, comparisons of outcomes from phase II studies with published RT + TMZ survival data should be interpreted with caution.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We investigated the novel recombinant oncolytic adenovirus Ad-delo-sr39TK-RGD, armed with a mutant herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-sr39TK) as a suicide gene, and explored its antitumor efficacy in combination with HSV1-sr39TK/ganciclovir (GCV) gene therapy and temozolomide (TMZ). Ad-delo-sr39TK-RGD is an E1-mutated conditionally replicating adenovirus dependent on the human Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1). Thus, we utilized the YB-1 dependency of the vector to target human glioma cells in vitro, using two-dimensional cell culture and three-dimensional multicellular spheroids, and demonstrated the strong replication competence and oncolytic potential of the virus. The cytotoxicity mediated by HSV1-sr39TK and its prodrug GCV enhanced the oncolytic effect even at <0.1 μg ml(-1) GCV and induced cell killing of > 95% after adding GCV 0-1 days following infection. An increased bystander effect of viral replication and GCV in co-cultured infected and uninfected cells was observed. Co-administrating Ad-delo-sr39TK-RGD with TMZ and GCV, spheroid growth was reduced drastically. Gamma counting of infected spheroids demonstrated successful accumulation of the radiotracer (18)F-labeled 9-[4-fluoro-3-(hydroxymethyl)butyl]guanine mediated by HSV1-sr39TK. Hence, our results show that the combination of YB-1-dependent virotherapy with suicide genes and TMZ effectively induces glioma cell killing and may allow for in vivo non-invasive imaging within a limited time frame.Cancer Gene Therapy advance online publication, 12 December 2014; doi:10.1038/cgt.2014.67.
    Cancer Gene Therapy 12/2014; 22(1). DOI:10.1038/cgt.2014.67 · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hypoxia is a hallmark of solid tumors including glioblastoma (GBM). Its synergism with Notch signaling promotes progression in different cancers. However, Notch signaling exhibits pleiotropic roles and the existing literature lacks a comprehensive understanding of its perturbations under hypoxia in GBM with respect to all components of the pathway. We identified the key molecular cluster(s) characteristic of the Notch pathway response in hypoxic GBM tumors and gliomaspheres. Expression of Notch and hypoxia genes was evaluated in primary human GBM tissues by q-PCR. Clustering and statistical analyses were applied to identify the combination of hypoxia markers correlated with upregulated Notch pathway components. We found well-segregated tumor-clusters representing high and low HIF-1α/PGK1-expressors which accounted for differential expression of Notch signaling genes. In combination, a five-hypoxia marker set (HIF-1α/PGK1/VEGF/CA9/OPN) was determined as the best predictor for induction of Notch1/Dll1/Hes1/Hes6/Hey1/Hey2. Similar Notch-axis genes were activated in gliomaspheres, but not monolayer cultures, under moderate/severe hypoxia (2%/0.2% O2). Preliminary evidence suggested inverse correlation between patient survival and increased expression of constituents of the hypoxia-Notch gene signature. Together, our findings delineated the Notch-axis maximally associated with hypoxia in resected GBM, which might be prognostically relevant. Its upregulation in hypoxia-exposed gliomaspheres signify them as a better in-vitro model for studying hypoxia-Notch interactions than monolayer cultures.
    PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(3):e0118201. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0118201 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Evolving research has demonstrated that surgical cytoreduction of a high-grade glial neoplasm is an important factor in improving the prognosis of these difficult tumors. Recent advances in intraoperative imaging have spurred the use of stereotactic laser ablation (laser interstitial thermal therapy [LITT]) for intracranial lesions. Among other targets, laser ablation has been used in the focal treatment of high-grade gliomas (HGGs). The revived application of laser ablation for gliomas parallels major advancements in intraoperative adjuvants and groundbreaking molecular advances in neuro-oncology. The authors review the research on stereotactic LITT for the treatment of HGGs and provide a potential management algorithm for HGGs that incorporates LITT in clinical practice.
    Neurosurgical FOCUS 12/2014; 37(6):E1. DOI:10.3171/2014.9.FOCUS14471 · 2.14 Impact Factor


Available from