Article

Intermittent prophylaxis with oral truvada protects macaques from rectal SHIV infection.

Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV, Hepatitis, STD, and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.
Science translational medicine (Impact Factor: 14.41). 01/2010; 2(14):14ra4. DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3000391
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT HIV continues to spread globally, mainly through sexual contact. Despite advances in treatment and care, preventing transmission with vaccines or microbicides has proven difficult. A promising strategy to avoid transmission is prophylactic treatment with antiretroviral drugs before exposure to HIV. Clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of daily treatment with the reverse transcriptase inhibitors tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) or Truvada (TDF plus emtricitabine) are under way. We hypothesized that intermittent prophylactic treatment with long-acting antiviral drugs would be as effective as daily dosing in blocking the earliest stages of viral replication and preventing mucosal transmission. We tested this hypothesis by intermittently giving prophylactic Truvada to macaque monkeys and then exposing them rectally to simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) once a week for 14 weeks. A simple regimen with an oral dose of Truvada given 1, 3, or 7 days before exposure followed by a second dose 2 hours after exposure was as protective as daily drug administration, possibly because of the long intracellular persistence of the drugs. In addition, a two-dose regimen initiated 2 hours before or after virus exposure was effective, and full protection was obtained by doubling the Truvada concentration in both doses. We saw no protection if the first dose was delayed until 24 hours after exposure, underscoring the importance of blocking initial replication in the mucosa. Our results show that intermittent prophylactic treatment with an antiviral drug can be highly effective in preventing SHIV infection, with a wide window of protection. They strengthen the possibility of developing feasible, cost-effective strategies to prevent HIV transmission in humans.

Full-text

Available from: Ae S Youngpairoj, Jun 08, 2015
6 Followers
 · 
555 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective and evidence-based HIV prevention option and is recommended for individuals with substantial risk for HIV infection [1]. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that daily oral PrEP dramatically reduces the risk of HIV infection when it is taken as directed. Concerns regarding widespread emergence of antiretroviral resistance attributable to PrEP and behavioral disinhibition have to date not been observed in clinical trials and open-label demonstration projects. PrEP has great potential as part of an HIV risk reduction strategy, and barriers to wider implementation including community education, prescriber availability, and elimination of financial barriers should be aggressively pursued. Adherence is critical to PrEP efficacy and has varied across study populations; developing and refining ways of measuring and supporting adherence is essential to the success of PrEP. Evaluation of long-acting medications and alternative formulations for PrEP is underway and may lead to the wider implementation and impact of PrEP.
    06/2015; 7(2). DOI:10.1007/s40506-015-0046-4
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: As the global incidence of HIV exceeds 2 million new infections annually, effective interventions to decrease HIV transmission are needed. Randomized, placebo-controlled studies have demonstrated that daily oral antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with a fixed-dose combination tablet containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine can significantly reduce HIV incidence among diverse at-risk populations. In these studies, the efficacy of PrEP was correlated with levels of adherence. Official guidelines recommend provision of PrEP to people at greatest risk of HIV acquisition, and demonstration projects suggest that high levels of uptake and adherence are possible outside of controlled studies. However, several potential barriers to implementing PrEP remain. These challenges include low awareness and utilization of PrEP by at-risk individuals, uncertainty about adherence in 'real-world' settings, the majority of healthcare providers being untrained in PrEP provision, limited data about potential adverse effects from long-term use of tenofovir-emtricitabine, high costs of PrEP medications, and stigma associated with PrEP use and the behaviors that would warrant PrEP. Innovative pharmacologic chemoprophylactic approaches could provide solutions to some of these challenges. Less-than-daily oral dosing regimens and long-acting injectable medications could reduce pill burdens and facilitate adherence, and local delivery of PrEP medications to genital compartments via gels, rings and films may limit systemic drug exposure and potential toxicities. As the portfolio of chemoprophylactic agents and delivery systems expands to meet the diverse sexual health needs and product preferences of individuals who may benefit from PrEP, it is hoped that antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis could become an acceptable, feasible, and highly effective addition to existing HIV prevention strategies.
    Drugs 02/2015; 75(3). DOI:10.1007/s40265-015-0355-4 · 4.13 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pharmacokinetic studies in animal models are important for assessing the prophylactic potential of antiretroviral drugs for HIV prevention. This study sought to identify clinically relevant doses of the marketed integrase inhibitors raltegravir, elvitegravir and dolutegravir in macaques and investigate drug penetration and antiviral activity in mucosal secretions. Macaques received one oral dose of raltegravir, elvitegravir or dolutegravir alone or in combination with emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate followed by drug level measurements in blood and rectal and vaginal secretions. Antiviral activity was investigated in TZM-bl cells exposed to SHIV162p3 in the presence of rectal secretions collected from treated animals. Plasma drug concentrations with 50 mg/kg raltegravir or elvitegravir were within the range seen in humans receiving 400-800 mg of raltegravir or 800 mg of unboosted elvitegravir but lower than with 150 mg of elvitegravir boosted with cobicistat. AUC0-24 values for dolutegravir increased proportionally with the dose, with a calculated human-equivalent dose of 20 mg/kg. Elvitegravir showed the highest penetration in rectal and vaginal fluids despite the absence of pharmacological boosting, followed by raltegravir and dolutegravir. Rectal secretions collected at 24 h from treated macaques blocked infection of TZM-bl cells by 50% at dilutions of 1/1000 (raltegravir), 1/800 (dolutegravir) and >1/30 000 (elvitegravir). We defined macaque doses of HIV integrase inhibitors that recapitulate human clinical doses, which will facilitate efficacy and dose escalation studies in macaques. High and sustained drug concentrations and activity in mucosal secretions suggest that integrase inhibitors are promising candidates for HIV prevention. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
    Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 01/2015; 70(5). DOI:10.1093/jac/dku556 · 5.44 Impact Factor