Article

Seizures and paroxysmal events: symptoms pointing to the diagnosis of pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy and pyridoxine phosphate oxidase deficiency

Department of Neurology, University Children's Hospital, Steinwiesstrasse 75, Zurich, Switzerland.
Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology (Impact Factor: 3.29). 03/2010; 52(7):e133-42. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2010.03660.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We report on seizures, paroxysmal events, and electroencephalogram (EEG) findings in four female infants with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE) and in one female with pyridoxine phosphate oxidase deficiency (PNPO).
Videos and EEGs were analysed and compared with videos of seizures and paroxysmal events archived from 140 neonates. PDE and PNPO were proven by complete control of seizures once pyridoxine or pyridoxal 5'-phosphate was administered and by recurrence when withdrawn. Mutations in the antiquitin gene were found in three patients and in the PNPO gene in one child.
Seizures began within 48 hours after birth in four newborns and at age 3 weeks in one. Frequent multifocal and generalized myoclonic jerks, often intermixed with tonic symptoms, abnormal eye movement, grimacing, or irritability, were observed in all infants with PDE and PNPO, but rarely in the other archived videos of neonates. EEGs were inconstant and frequently no discernable ictal changes were recorded during the seizures and the paroxysmal events. In addition, interictal EEGs were inconclusive, with normal and abnormal recordings. In older children tonic-clonic seizures, abnormal behaviour, inconsolable crying, frightened facial expression, sleep disturbance, loss of consciousness, paraesthesia, or intermittent visual symptoms were described during controlled and uncontrolled withdrawal or insufficient dosage.
PDE or PNPO should be considered in infants with prolonged episodes of mixed multifocal myoclonic tonic symptoms, notably when associated with grimacing and abnormal eye movements.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Matthias R Baumgartner, Dec 27, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
102 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Untreated epileptic encephalopathies in children may potentially have disastrous outcomes. Treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) often may not control the seizures, and even if they do, this measure is only symptomatic and not specific. It is especially valuable to identify potential underlying conditions that have specific treatments. Only a few conditions have definitive treatments that can potentially modify the natural course of disease. In this paper, we discuss the few such conditions that are responsive to vitamin or vitamin derivatives.
    01/2013; 2013:510529. DOI:10.1155/2013/510529
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy is a disorder associated with severe seizures that may be caused by deficient activity of α-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, encoded by the ALDH7A1 gene, with accumulation of α-aminoadipic semialdehyde and piperideine-6-carboxylic acid. The latter reacts with pyridoxal-phosphate, explaining the effective treatment with pyridoxine. We report the clinical phenotype of three patients, their mutations and those of 12 additional patients identified in our clinical molecular laboratory. There were six missense, one nonsense, and five splice-site mutations, and two small deletions. Mutations c.1217_1218delAT, I431F, IVS-1(+2)T > G, IVS-2(+1)G > A, and IVS-12(+1)G > A are novel. Some disease alleles were recurring: E399Q (eight times), G477R (six times), R82X (two times), and c.1217_1218delAT (two times). A systematic review of mutations from the literature indicates that missense mutations cluster around exons 14, 15, and 16. Nine mutations represent 61% of alleles. Molecular modeling of missense mutations allows classification into three groups: those that affect NAD+ binding or catalysis, those that affect the substrate binding site, and those that affect multimerization. There are three clinical phenotypes: patients with complete seizure control with pyridoxine and normal developmental outcome (group 1) including our first patient; patients with complete seizure control with pyridoxine but with developmental delay (group 2), including our other two patients; and patients with persistent seizures despite pyridoxine treatment and with developmental delay (group 3). There is preliminary evidence for a genotype-phenotype correlation with patients from group 1 having mutations with residual activity. There is evidence from patients with similar genotypes for nongenetic factors contributing to the phenotypic spectrum.
    Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 10/2010; 33(5):571-81. DOI:10.1007/s10545-010-9187-2 · 4.14 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 04/2010; 52(7):602-3. DOI:10.1111/j.1469-8749.2010.03668.x · 3.29 Impact Factor