Cutting edge: critical role for PYCARD/ASC in the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
ABSTRACT Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease in which self-reactive T cells attack oligodendrocytes that myelinate axons in the CNS. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis, is dependent on caspase-1; however, the role of Nod-like receptors upstream of caspase-1 is unknown. Danger- and pathogen-associated molecular patterns activate Nod-like receptor 3, which activates caspase-1 through the adaptor protein, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC). We report that the progression of EAE is dependent on ASC and caspase-1 but not Nod-like receptor 3. ASC(-/-) mice were even more protected from the progression of EAE than were caspase-1(-/-) mice, suggesting that an inflammasome-independent function of ASC contributes to the progression of EAE. We found that CD4(+) T cells deficient in ASC exhibited impaired survival; accordingly, ASC(-/-) mice had fewer myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-specific T cells in the draining lymph nodes and CNS.
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ABSTRACT: NLRs are members of the PRR family that sense microbial pathogens and mediate host innate immune responses to infection. Certain NLRs can assemble into a multiprotein complex called the inflammasome, which activates casapse-1 required for the cleavage of immature forms of IL-1β and IL-18 into active, mature cytokines. The inflammasome is activated by conserved, exogenous molecules from microbes and nonmicrobial molecules, such as asbestos, alum, or silica, as well as by endogenous danger signals, such as ATP, amyloid-β, and sodium urate crystals. Activation of the inflammasome is a critical event triggering IL-1-driven inflammation and is central to the pathology of autoinflammatory diseases, such as gout and MWS. Recent studies have also shown IL-1 or IL-18, in synergy with IL-23, can promote IL-17-prduction from Th17 cells and γδ T cells, and this process can be regulated by autophagy. IL-1-driven IL-17 production plays a critical role in host protective immunity to infection with fungi, bacteria, and certain viruses. However, Th17 cells and IL-17-seceting γδ T cells, activated by inflammasome-derived IL-1 or IL-18, have major pathogenic roles in many autoimmune diseases. Consequently, inflammasomes are now major drug targets for many autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases, as well as autoinflammatory diseases.Journal of leukocyte biology 12/2012; · 4.99 Impact Factor