Cooling and Control of a Cavity Optoelectromechanical System

Department of Physics, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia.
Physical Review Letters (Impact Factor: 7.51). 03/2010; 104(12):123604. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.123604
Source: PubMed


We implement a cavity optoelectromechanical system integrating electrical actuation capabilities of nanoelectromechanical devices with ultrasensitive mechanical transduction achieved via intracavity optomechanical coupling. Electrical gradient forces as large as 0.40 microN are realized, with simultaneous mechanical transduction sensitivity of 1.5x10{-18} m Hz{-1/2} representing a 3 orders of magnitude improvement over any nanoelectromechanical system to date. Optoelectromechanical feedback cooling is demonstrated, exhibiting strong squashing of the in-loop transduction signal. Out-of-loop transduction provides accurate temperature calibration even in the critical paradigm where measurement backaction induces optomechanical correlations.

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    • "Their incredibly high Q factors make them perform very well to probe any sort of disturbance in the environment (Schiller, 1991; Oraevsky, 2002; Vahala, 2003). Also, they can be used in quantum information processes, such as quantum optomechanics (Lee, 2010; Forstner, 2012). In Oraevsky (2002), it is demonstrated that a plane wave cannot excite a WGM. "
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    • "Over the past decade, there has been a surge in applications of radiation pressure forces for optical tweezers [1] [2] [3], optomechanical cooling [4] [5] and optical transduction of mechanical motion [6] [7]. Optomechanical cooling by cavity feedback [8] [9] [10] recently allowed for preparing a macroscopic object in its quantum ground state [11], while active feedback cooling [12] [13] is actively pursued. Using optical methods for read out of mechanical vibrations provides unconstrained bandwidth and higher sensitivity compared to an electrical measurement, having enabled the observation of radiation pressure shot noise [14] and squeezing of light below the vacuum noise level [15]. "
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    • "To specifically demonstrate power estimation, a small incoherent signal is applied to the mechanical oscillator in addition to the thermal fluctuations. This is achieved by the electrostatic gradient force applied by a nearby electrode driven with white noise from a signal generator [27]. The measurement record is acquired from the homodyne signal by electronic lock-in detection which involves demodulation of the photocurrent at the mechanical resonance frequency allowing real time measurement of the slowly evolving quadratures of motion, denoted I(t) and Q(t) where x(t) = I(t) cos(Ω m t)+Q(t) sin(Ω m t). "
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    ABSTRACT: We propose a statistical framework for the problem of parameter estimation from a noisy optomechanical system. The Cram\'er-Rao lower bound on the estimation errors in the long-time limit is derived and compared with the errors of radiometer and expectation-maximization (EM) algorithms in the estimation of the force noise power. When applied to experimental data, the EM estimator is found to have the lowest error and follow the Cram\'er-Rao bound most closely. Our analytic results are envisioned to be valuable to optomechanical experiment design, while the EM algorithm, with its ability to estimate most of the system parameters, is envisioned to be useful for optomechanical sensing, atomic magnetometry, and fundamental tests of quantum mechanics.
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