Article

Nonspherical laser-induced cavitation bubbles

Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.
Physical Review E (Impact Factor: 2.33). 01/2010; 81(1 Pt 2):016308. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.81.016308
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The generation of arbitrarily shaped nonspherical laser-induced cavitation bubbles is demonstrated with a optical technique. The nonspherical bubbles are formed using laser intensity patterns shaped by a spatial light modulator using linear absorption inside a liquid gap with a thickness of 40 microm. In particular we demonstrate the dynamics of elliptic, toroidal, square, and V-shaped bubbles. The bubble dynamics is recorded with a high-speed camera at framing rates of up to 300,000 frames per second. The observed bubble evolution is compared to predictions from an axisymmetric boundary element simulation which provides good qualitative agreement. Interesting dynamic features that are observed in both the experiment and simulation include the inversion of the major and minor axis for elliptical bubbles, the rotation of the shape for square bubbles, and the formation of a unidirectional jet for V-shaped bubbles. Further we demonstrate that specific bubble shapes can either be formed directly through the intensity distribution of a single laser focus, or indirectly using secondary bubbles that either confine the central bubble or coalesce with the main bubble. The former approach provides the ability to generate in principle any complex bubble geometry.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Boo Cheong Khoo, Aug 20, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
202 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To overcome the inconsecutive drawback of shadow and schlieren photography, the complete dynamics of cavitation bubble oscillation or ablation products induced by a single holmium laser pulse [2.12 microm, 300 micros (FWHM)] transmitted in different core diameter (200, 400, and 600 microm) fibers is recorded by means of high-speed photography. Consecutive images from high-speed cameras can stand for the true and complete process of laser-water or laser-tissue interaction. Both laser pulse energy and fiber diameter determine cavitation bubble size, which further determines acoustic transient amplitudes. Based on the pictures taken by high-speed camera and scanned by an optical coherent microscopy (OCM) system, it is easily seen that the liquid layer at the distal end of the fiber plays an important role during the process of laser-tissue interaction, which can increase ablation efficiency, decrease heat side effects, and reduce cost.
    Journal of Biomedical Optics 07/2010; 15(4):048002. DOI:10.1117/1.3470092 · 2.75 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bubbles in liquids, soft and squeezy objects made of gas and vapour, yet so strong as to destroy any material and so mysterious as at times turning into tiny light bulbs, are the topic of the present report. Bubbles respond to pressure forces and reveal their full potential when periodically driven by sound waves. The basic equations for nonlinear bubble oscillation in sound fields are given, together with a survey of typical solutions. A bubble in a liquid can be considered as a representative example from nonlinear dynamical systems theory with its resonances, multiple attractors with their basins, bifurcations to chaos and not yet fully describable behaviour due to infinite complexity. Three stability conditions are treated for stable trapping of bubbles in standing sound fields: positional, spherical and diffusional stability. Chemical reactions may become important in that respect, when reacting gases fill the bubble, but the chemistry of bubbles is just touched upon and is beyond the scope of the present report. Bubble collapse, the runaway shrinking of a bubble, is presented in its current state of knowledge. Pressures and temperatures that are reached at this occasion are discussed, as well as the light emission in the form of short flashes. Aspherical bubble collapse, as for instance enforced by boundaries nearby, mitigates most of the phenomena encountered in spherical collapse, but introduces a new effect: jet formation, the self-piercing of a bubble with a high velocity liquid jet. Examples of this phenomenon are given from light induced bubbles. Two oscillating bubbles attract or repel each other, depending on their oscillations and their distance. Upon approaching, attraction may change to repulsion and vice versa. When being close, they also shoot self-piercing jets at each other. Systems of bubbles are treated as they appear after shock wave passage through a liquid and with their branched filaments that they attain in standing sound fields. The N-bubble problem is formulated in the spirit of the n-body problem of astrophysics, but with more complicated interaction forces. Simulations are compared with three-dimensional bubble dynamics obtained by stereoscopic high speed digital videography.
    Reports on Progress in Physics 09/2010; 73(10):106501. DOI:10.1088/0034-4885/73/10/106501 · 15.63 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report the self-assembly of ZnOx (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) (and permalloy) nanoclusters into hollow nanoparticles using pulsed laser ablation of bulk Zn (or permalloy) in ethanol–water binary mixture. The self-assembly is due to the trapping of laser-produced nanoclusters by the interfaces of cavitation bubbles and the bonding of the nanoclusters by capillary attraction. It was found that the bubbles generated in the mixture have significantly longer lifetimes compared to water alone, which provide an increasing chance to absorb diffusive nanoclusters. The mixture could be adjusted by adding viscous surfactant that makes the pulsed laser ablation in liquid a promising method for the discovery and fabrication of other hollow geometries.
    Applied Physics Letters 09/2010; 97(12):124106-124106-3. DOI:10.1063/1.3488003 · 3.52 Impact Factor
Show more