Characterization of a model of an arteriovenous fistula in the rat: the effect of L-NAME.
ABSTRACT Vascular access dysfunction contributes to the mortality of patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. The present study analyzed the changes that evolve in a femoral arteriovenous fistula in the rat. The venous segment of this model exhibited, at 1 week, activation of pro-inflammatory transcription factors and up-regulation of pro-inflammatory, proliferative, procoagulant, and profibrotic genes; and at 4 weeks, the venous segment displayed neointimal hyperplasia, smooth muscle proliferation, and thrombus formation. These changes were accompanied by endothelial (e) nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and inducible (i) NOS up-regulation. The administration of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, an inhibitor of NOS activity, increased venous neointimal hyperplasia and pro-inflammatory gene expression (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1), increased systolic blood pressure, and decreased blood flow through the fistula. In another hypertensive model, the rat subtotal nephrectomy model, venous neointimal hyperplasia in the arteriovenous fistula was also exacerbated. We conclude that this arteriovenous fistula model recapitulates the salient features observed in dysfunctional, hemodialysis arteriovenous fistulas, and that venous neointimal hyperplasia is exacerbated when this model is superimposed in two different models of systemic hypertension. Since the uremic milieu contains increased amounts of asymmetric dimethylarginine, we speculate that such accumulation of this endogenous inhibitor of NOS, by virtue of its pressor or nitric oxide-depleting effects, or a combination thereof, may contribute to the limited longevity of arteriovenous fistulas used for hemodialysis.
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ABSTRACT: Neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) and impaired dilatation are important contributors to arteriovenous fistula (AVF) failure. It is unclear whether chronic kidney disease (CKD) itself causes adverse remodeling in arterialized veins. Here we determined if CKD specifically triggers adverse effects on vascular remodeling and assessed whether these changes affect the function of AVFs. For this purpose, we used rats on a normal diet or on an adenine-rich diet to induce CKD and created a fistula between the right femoral artery and vein. Fistula maturation was followed noninvasively by high-resolution ultrasound (US), and groups of rats were killed on 42 and 84 days after surgery for histological and immunohistochemical analyses of the AVFs and contralateral femoral vessels. In vivo US and ex vivo morphometric analyses confirmed a significant increase in NIH in the AVFs of both groups with CKD compared to those receiving a normal diet. Furthermore, we found using histological evaluation of the fistula veins in the rats with CKD that the media shrank and their calcification increased significantly. Afferent artery dilatation was significantly impaired in CKD and the downstream fistula vein had delayed dilation after surgery. These changes were accompanied by significantly increased peak systolic velocity at the site of the anastomosis, implying stenosis. Thus, CKD triggers adverse effects on vascular remodeling in AVFs, all of which contribute to anatomical and/or functional stenosis.Kidney International 09/2010; 78(12):1312-21. · 6.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vascular access dysfunction compromises the care of patients on chronic hemodialysis. Elucidating the mechanisms of such dysfunction and devising strategies that may interrupt neointimal hyperplasia and relevant pathogenetic pathways are essential. Here, we show that, in the venous segment of a murine model of an arteriovenous fistula, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA and protein increase, accompanied by increased activity of the transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1. Genetic deficiency of MCP-1 proved markedly protective in this murine model, reflected by increased fistula patency 6 weeks after its formation, decreased venous wall thickness, and increased luminal area. An early effect of MCP-1 deficiency was the attenuation of the marked induction of CCL5 (RANTES) that occurred in this model, a chemokine recently recognized as a critical participant in vascular injury. Finally, in a rat model of an arteriovenous fistula, we localized expression of MCP-1 to the endothelium, proliferating smooth muscle cells and infiltrating leukocytes. In summary, marked upregulation of MCP-1 occurs in the venous segment of an arteriovenous fistula in rodents, and this vasculopathic chemokine contributes to failure of the fistula.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 01/2011; 22(1):43-8. · 9.66 Impact Factor