Platelets regulate lymphatic vascular development through CLEC-2-SLP-76 signaling

Department of Medicine and Cardiovascular Institute, University of Pennsylvania, 421 Curie Blvd., Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
Blood (Impact Factor: 10.45). 04/2010; 116(4):661-70. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2010-02-270876
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although platelets appear by embryonic day 10.5 in the developing mouse, an embryonic role for these cells has not been identified. The SYK-SLP-76 signaling pathway is required in blood cells to regulate embryonic blood-lymphatic vascular separation, but the cell type and molecular mechanism underlying this regulatory pathway are not known. In the present study we demonstrate that platelets regulate lymphatic vascular development by directly interacting with lymphatic endothelial cells through C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2) receptors. PODOPLANIN (PDPN), a transmembrane protein expressed on the surface of lymphatic endothelial cells, is required in nonhematopoietic cells for blood-lymphatic separation. Genetic loss of the PDPN receptor CLEC-2 ablates PDPN binding by platelets and confers embryonic lymphatic vascular defects like those seen in animals lacking PDPN or SLP-76. Platelet factor 4-Cre-mediated deletion of Slp-76 is sufficient to confer lymphatic vascular defects, identifying platelets as the cell type in which SLP-76 signaling is required to regulate lymphatic vascular development. Consistent with these genetic findings, we observe SLP-76-dependent platelet aggregate formation on the surface of lymphatic endothelial cells in vivo and ex vivo. These studies identify a nonhemostatic pathway in which platelet CLEC-2 receptors bind lymphatic endothelial PDPN and activate SLP-76 signaling to regulate embryonic vascular development.

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Available from: Matthias Stadtfeld, Jan 21, 2015
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    • "Platelets have a well-described physiological role in haemostasis and coagulation, but recently, they have also been shown to participate in immunity, tissue repair and development (1–3). Platelet-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) provide an abundant source of molecules to help orchestrate these diverse functions, reviewed in Aatonen et al. (4). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Platelet-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) participate, for example, in haemostasis, immunity and development. Most studies of platelet EVs have targeted microparticles, whereas exosomes and EV characterization under various conditions have been less analyzed. Studies have been hampered by the difficulty in obtaining EVs free from contaminating cells and platelet remnants. Therefore, we optimized an EV isolation protocol and compared the quantity and protein content of EVs induced by different agonists. Methods Platelets isolated with iodixanol gradient were activated by thrombin and collagen, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or Ca2+ ionophore. Microparticles and exosomes were isolated by differential centrifugations. EVs were quantitated by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and total protein. Size distributions were determined by NTA and electron microscopy. Proteomics was used to characterize the differentially induced EVs. Results The main EV populations were 100–250 nm and over 90% were <500 nm irrespective of the activation. However, activation pathways differentially regulated the quantity and the quality of EVs, which also formed constitutively. Thrombogenic activation was the most potent physiological EV-generator. LPS was a weak inducer of EVs, which had a selective protein content from the thrombogenic EVs. Ca2+ ionophore generated a large population of protein-poor and unselectively packed EVs. By proteomic analysis, EVs were highly heterogeneous after the different activations and between the vesicle subpopulations. Conclusions Although platelets constitutively release EVs, vesiculation can be increased, and the activation pathway determines the number and the cargo of the formed EVs. These activation-dependent variations render the use of protein content in sample normalization invalid. Since most platelet EVs are 100–250 nm, only a fraction has been analyzed by previously used methods, for example, flow cytometry. As the EV subpopulations could not be distinguished and large vesicle populations may be lost by differential centrifugation, novel methods are required for the isolation and the differentiation of all EVs.
    08/2014; 3. DOI:10.3402/jev.v3.24692
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    • "Although many anti-podoplanin mAbs have been produced, those mAbs, including NZ-1, react with podoplanin-expressing normal cells, including lung type I alveolar cells, renal podocytes, mesothelial cells, and lymphatic endothelial cells throughout the body132223282930. Recently, critical physiological functions of podoplanin have been reported3458. Therefore, a cancer-specific anti-podoplanin mAb is necessary for molecular targeted therapy against podoplanin-expressing cancers. "
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    ABSTRACT: Podoplanin (PDPN/Aggrus/T1α), a platelet aggregation-inducing mucin-like sialoglycoprotein, is highly expressed in many cancers and normal tissues. A neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb; NZ-1) can block the association between podoplanin and C-type lectin-like receptor-2 (CLEC-2) and inhibit podoplanin-induced cancer metastasis, but NZ-1 reacts with podoplanin-expressing normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells. In this study, we established a cancer-specific mAb (CasMab) against human podoplanin. Aberrantly glycosylated podoplanin including keratan sulfate or aberrant sialylation, which was expressed in LN229 glioblastoma cells, was used as an immunogen. The newly established LpMab-2 mAb recognized both an aberrant O-glycosylation and a Thr55-Leu64 peptide from human podoplanin. Because LpMab-2 reacted with podoplanin-expressing cancer cells but not with normal cells, as shown by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, it is an anti-podoplanin CasMab that is expected to be useful for molecular targeting therapy against podoplanin-expressing cancers.
    Scientific Reports 08/2014; 4:5924. DOI:10.1038/srep05924 · 5.58 Impact Factor
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    • "Because platelets also act to maintain vascular integrity and as the brain and lungs are more susceptible to haemorrhage in a mouse model of acute severe thrombocytopenia induced by platelet depletion [46], these hemorrhages most likely occur secondary to the lack of platelets. These data showed that platelets are required during embryonic lymphangiogenesis for the separation of the nascent lymphatic vasculature from blood vessels [47,48]. However, recent studies by Yang et al. [49] and Hägerling et al. [50] have disproved a direct involment of platelets in the emergence of the first jugular lymph sacs. "
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    ABSTRACT: Dicer is an RNase III enzyme that cleaves double stranded RNA and generates functional interfering RNAs that act as important regulators of gene and protein expression. Dicer plays an essential role during mouse development because the deletion of the dicer gene leads to embryonic death. In addition, dicer-dependent interfering RNAs regulate postnatal angiogenesis. However, the role of dicer is not yet fully elucidated during vascular development. In order to explore the functional roles of the RNA interference in vascular biology, we developed a new constitutive Cre/loxP-mediated inactivation of dicer in tie2 expressing cells. We show that cell-specific inactivation of dicer in Tie2 expressing cells does not perturb early blood vessel development and patterning. Tie2-Cre; dicerfl/fl mutant embryos do not show any blood vascular defects until embryonic day (E)12.5, a time at which hemorrhages and edema appear. Then, midgestational lethality occurs at E14.5 in mutant embryos. The developing lymphatic vessels of dicer-mutant embryos are filled with circulating red blood cells, revealing an impaired separation of blood and lymphatic vasculature. Thus, these results show that RNA interference perturbs neither vasculogenesis and developmental angiogenesis, nor lymphatic specification from venous endothelial cells but actually provides evidence for an epigenetic control of separation of blood and lymphatic vasculature.
    Vascular Cell 04/2014; 6(1):9. DOI:10.1186/2045-824X-6-9
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