Neuroprotectin D1 induces dephosphorylation of BCL-XL in a PP2A-dependent manner during oxidative stress and promotes retinal pigment epithelial cell survival
ABSTRACT Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell integrity is critical for the survival of photoreceptor cells. Bcl-x(L) is a major anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein required for RPE cell survival, and phosphorylation of Bcl-x(L) at residue Ser-62 renders this protein pro-apoptotic. In this study, we identify serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) as a key regulator of Bcl-x(L) phosphorylation at residue Ser-62 in ARPE-19 cells, a spontaneously arising RPE cell line in which Bcl-x(L) is highly expressed. We found that either PP2A inhibitor okadaic acid or depletion of catalytic subunit alpha of PP2A (PP2A/Calpha) by small interfering RNA enhanced Bcl-x(L) phosphorylation when activated with hydrogen peroxide and tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced oxidative stress. Disruption of PP2A/Calpha exacerbated oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. PP2A/Calpha colocalized and interacted with S62Bcl-x(L) in cells stressed with H(2)O(2)/tumor necrosis factor alpha. By contrast, the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid derivative, neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1), a potent activator of survival signaling, down-regulated oxidative stress-induced phosphorylation of Bcl-x(L) by increasing protein phosphatase activity. NPD1 also attenuated the oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by knockdown of PP2A/Calpha and increased the association of PP2A/Calpha with S62Bcl-x(L) as well as total Bcl-x(L). NPD1 also enhanced the heterodimerization of Bcl-x(L) with its counterpart, pro-apoptotic protein Bax. Thus, NPD1 modulates the activation of this Bcl-2 family protein by dephosphorylating in a PP2A-dependent manner, suggesting a coordinated, NPD1-mediated regulation of cell survival in response to oxidative stress.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction There is increasing evidence that retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) can be used to treat age-related macular degeneration, one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. However, the best way to store RPE to enable worldwide distribution is unknown. We investigated the effects of supplementing our previously published storage method with seven additives, attempting to improve the number of viable adult retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE)-19 cells after storage. Materials and methods ARPE-19 cells were cultured on multiwell plates before being stored for 1 week at 16 °C. Unsupplemented Minimal Essential Medium (MEM) (control) and a total of seven individual additives (DADLE ([d-Ala2, d-Leu5]-encephalin), capsazepine, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), resveratrol, quercetin, simvastatin and sulforaphane) at three to four concentrations in MEM were tested. The individual effect of each additive on cell viability was analyzed with a microplate fluorometer. Cell phenotype was investigated by both microplate fluorometer and epifluorescence microscopy, and morphology by scanning electron microscopy. Results Supplementation of the storage medium with DADLE, capsazepine, DHA or resveratrol significantly increased the number of viable cells by 86.1% ± 41.9%, 67.9% ± 24.7%, 36.5% ± 10.3% and 21.1% ± 6.4%, respectively, compared to cells stored in unsupplemented MEM. DHA and resveratrol significantly reduced caspase-3 expression, while expression of RPE65 was maintained across groups. Conclusion The number of viable ARPE-19 cells can be increased by the addition of DADLE, capsazepine, DHA or resveratrol to the storage medium without perturbing apoptosis or differentiation. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s40123-014-0024-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.03/2014; 3(1-2). DOI:10.1007/s40123-014-0024-9
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ABSTRACT: Crosslinking BCR in the immature B cell line WEHI-231 causes apoptosis. We found that Bcl-xL was degraded by polyubiquitination upon BCR crosslinking and in this study explored the mechanism that controls the degradation of Bcl-xL. Ser(62) of Bcl-xL was phosphorylated by JNK to trigger polyubiquitination, and this was opposed by serine/threonine protein phosphatase 6 (PP6) that physically associated with Bcl-xL. We show BCR crosslinking decreased PP6 activity to allow Ser(62) phosphorylation of Bcl-xL. CD40 crosslinking rescues BCR-induced apoptosis, and we found PP6 associated with CD40 and PP6 activation in response to CD40. Our data suggest that PP6 activity is regulated to control apoptosis by modulating Ser(62) phosphorylation of Bcl-xL, which results in its polyubiquitination and degradation.The Journal of Immunology 05/2014; 192(12). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1302643 · 5.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Acute inflammatory responses are protective, yet without timely resolution can lead to chronic inflammation and organ fibrosis. A systems approach to investigate self-limited (self-resolving) inflammatory exudates in mice and structural elucidation uncovered novel resolution phase mediators in vivo that stimulate endogenous resolution mechanisms in inflammation. Resolving inflammatory exudates and human leukocytes utilize DHA and other n-3 EFA to produce three structurally distinct families of potent di- and trihydroxy-containing products, with several stereospecific potent mediators in each family. Given their potent and stereoselective picogram actions, specific members of these new families of mediators from the DHA metabolome were named D-series resolvins (Resolvin D1 to Resolvin D6), protectins (including protectin D1- neuroprotectin D1), and maresins (MaR1 and MaR2). In this review, we focus on a) biosynthesis of protectins and maresins as anti-inflammatory - pro-resolving mediators; b) their complete stereochemical assignments and actions in vivo in disease models. Each pathway involves the biosynthesis of epoxide-containing intermediates produced from hydroperoxy-containing precursors from human leukocytes and within exudates. Also, aspirin triggers an endogenous DHA metabolome that biosynthesizes potent products in inflammatory exudates and human leukocytes, namely aspirin-triggered Neuroprotectin D1/Protectin D1 [AT-(NPD1/PD1)]. Identification and structural elucidation of these new families of bioactive mediators in resolution has opened the possibility of diverse patho-physiologic actions in several processes including infection, inflammatory pain, tissue regeneration, neuroprotection-neurodegenerative disorders, wound healing, and others. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: analysis and biological relevance.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids 08/2014; 1851(4). DOI:10.1016/j.bbalip.2014.08.006 · 4.50 Impact Factor