Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program and population-based research in urologic oncology: An overview
ABSTRACT The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program is a commonly used data source in cancer research. This article provides an introduction to the SEER database, describes important data items available from SEER on the most commonly diagnosed urologic malignancies (prostate, bladder, and kidney cancers), and reviews limitations of SEER data for urologic oncology research.
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ABSTRACT: Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of primary renal cancers with and without metastatic lesions, if any. We also studied the relationship between the size of primary renal cancers and their SUVmax, and tried to find a clinical value of 18F-FDG PET-CT for the initial evaluation of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Methods The cases of 23 patients, 16 men and 7 women, who underwent PET-CT examination before operation were retrospectively reviewed. We measured the SUVmax of the primary renal cancers and those of any existing metastatic lesions, and the size of the primary renal cancers. We compared the SUVmax of primary RCCs with metastases and those without metastases, SUVmax of primary RCC and those of metastases, and studied the correlation between the size and SUVmax of primary RCCs. Results The SUVmax of primary RCC of the 16 patients without metastasis ranged from 1.1 to 5.6 with a median value of 2.6. Those of the patients with metastasis ranged from 2.9 to 7.6 with a median of 5.0. The size of the all 23 primary renal cancers ranged from 1.7 cm to 13.5 cm, with a median of 4.5 cm, and their SUVmax ranged from 1.1 to 7.6, with a median of 2.9. There was a statistically significant difference between the SUVmax of the primary RCC with metastasis (5.3 ± 1.7) and those without metastasis (2.9 ± 1.0). There was a moderate positive correlation between the sizes and SUVmax of all 23 primary RCCs. However, there was no statistically significant correlation between the sizes and SUVmax of primary RCCs with metastatic lesions and the same for RCCs without metastasis. The cutoff value of SUVmax for predicting extra-renal lesion was 4.4 and that for size was 5.8 cm according to the receiver operating characteristic curves. Conclusions Those who have primary RCC with high SUVmax are suggested to have a likelihood of metastasis. Also, there was a moderate trend of increasing value of SUVmax of primary RCC as their size increases. Physicians should beware of missing extra-renal lesions elsewhere.06/2014; 48(2). DOI:10.1007/s13139-013-0245-1
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ABSTRACT: Although rare, neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast (NECB) is becoming an increasingly recognized entity. The current literature is limited to case reports and small series and therefore a comprehensive population-based analysis was conducted to investigate the clinicopathologic features and long-term outcomes associated with NECB. We included all patients in the SEER Database from 2003 to 2010 with a diagnosis of NECB. The 2012 WHO classification system was used to categorize patients based on histopathologic diagnosis: well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors, small/oat cell or poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumors, adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine features (ANF), large cell neuroendocrine and carcinoid tumors. Survival analysis was performed for disease specific (DSS) and overall (OS) survival. Of the 284 cases identified, 52.1 % were classified as well-differentiated, 25.7 % small cell, 14.8 % ANF, 4.9 % large cell, and 2.5 % carcinoid. In general, patients presented with advanced disease: 36.2 % had positive lymph node metastases and 20.4 % presented with systemic metastases. Five-year DSS rates for stage I-IV NECB were 88.1, 67.8, 60.5, and 12.4 %, respectively, while five-year OS rates were 77.9, 57.3, 52.9, and 8.9 %, respectively. DSS and OS were significantly different for well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors and ANFs compared to small cell and carcinoid tumors. On univariate Cox proportional hazards regression, small cell carcinoma was significantly associated with worse DSS (OR 1.97, 95 % CI 1.05-3.67) and OS (OR 2.66, 95 % CI 1.49-4.72) compared to other neuroendocrine tumors. NECB is associated with advanced stage disease at presentation and an unfavorable prognosis for stage II-IV disease and small cell, large cell, and carcinoid histologic subtypes.Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10549-014-3207-0 · 4.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The survival of men diagnosed with prostate cancer has improved over time, and the current 10-year relative survival rate is 99.7%. The long survival of patients with this common cancer raises questions about the risk of a second primary cancer and the need for continued surveillance. METHODS: A population-based cohort of 441,504 men who were diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1992 and 2010 was identified from Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) data (SEER13). The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated as an estimate of the risk of a second primary malignancy based on the incidence in the general population. RESULTS: Prostate cancer survivors had a lower risk of being diagnosed with another cancer overall compared with the US population (SIR = 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.60-0.61). The risks of leukemia and cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, esophagus, stomach, colon and rectum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, lung and bronchus, and larynx were significantly lower. Conversely, these patients had a greater risk of bladder, kidney, and endocrine and soft tissue cancers. Men who received treatment with radiation therapy (external-beam radiation therapy) had long-term increases in their risk of bladder cancer (SIR = 1.42) and rectal cancer (SIR = 1.70) risk compared with who did not receive radiation (SIRbladder = 0.76; SIRrectal = 0.74). There were significant racial differences in the risk of being diagnosed with a second primary cancer, and the magnitude and direction of these risks depended on tumor type. CONCLUSIONS: Prostate cancer survivors remain at risk of subsequent malignancies, and race and treatment choice important determinants of long-term risk. (C) 2014 American Cancer Society.Cancer 09/2014; 120(17). DOI:10.1002/cncr.28769 · 4.90 Impact Factor