Extended-release naltrexone for treatment of alcohol dependence in primary care

New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10010, USA.
Journal of substance abuse treatment (Impact Factor: 2.9). 04/2010; 39(1):14-21. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsat.2010.03.005
Source: PubMed


The feasibility of using extended-release injectable naltrexone (XR-NTX) to treat alcohol dependence in routine primary care settings is unknown. An open-label, observational cohort study evaluated 3-month treatment retention, patient satisfaction, and alcohol use among alcohol-dependent patients in two urban public hospital medical clinics. Adults seeking treatment were offered monthly medical management (MM) and three XR-NTX injections (380 mg, intramuscular). Physician-delivered MM emphasized alcohol abstinence, medication effects, and accessing mutual help and counseling resources. Seventy-two alcohol-dependent patients were enrolled; 90% (65 of 72) of eligible subjects received the first XR-NTX injection; 75% (49 of 65) initiating treatment received the second XR-NTX injection; 62% (40 of 65), the third. Among the 56% (n = 40) receiving three injections, median drinks per day decreased from 4.1 (95% confidence interval = 2.9-6) at baseline to 0.5 (0-1.7) during Month 3. Extended-release naltrexone delivered in a primary care MM model appears a feasible and acceptable treatment for alcohol dependence.

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    • "NTX decreases days of heavy drinking (Anton et al., 2006) and alcohol relapse (Streeton & Whelan, 2001) and is superior to acamprosate and/or behavioral counseling (Anton et al., 2006). Once-monthly injectable extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) confers an adherence advantage (Garbutt et al., 2005; Swift, 2007) over daily oral formulations and is feasible for use in primary care settings (Lee et al., 2010). XR-NTX administration combined with brief medical management counseling reduces alcohol consumption even during holiday periods where heavy drinking is common (Lapham, Forman, Alexander, Illeperuma, & Bohn, 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: In Peru, the HIV epidemic is concentrated in men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW). Multiple studies correlate alcohol use disorders (AUDs) with risky sexual behaviors among Peruvian MSM. Qualitative research was used to inform a clinical trial on the acceptability of medication-assisted therapies to assist management of AUDs and improve antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among MSM/TGW in Peru. Three focus groups involving HIV-infected or HIV-uninfected MSM/TGW (n = 26) with AUDs (AUDIT ≥ 8) were transcribed, translated from Spanish into English, and analyzed using thematic content analysis. Despite having an AUD, participants considered themselves "social" drinkers, minimized their drinking behaviors, and differed about whether or not alcohol problems could be treated. Participants expressed skepticism about medication for treating AUDs. Three concepts emerged as necessary components of a treatment program for alcohol problems: cost, family support, and the potential to drink less alcohol without attaining total abstinence. This study reveals important areas of education to increase potential acceptability of a medication for treating AUDs among MSM/TGW. Given the social conditions and knowledge base of the participants, medication-assisted therapies using naltrexone may be a beneficial strategy for MSM with AUDs. © The Author(s) 2015.
    American journal of men's health 03/2015; DOI:10.1177/1557988315576775 · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    • "National consensus standards, moreover, recommend pharmacotherapy (National Quality Forum, 2007) and both alcohol and opioid dependence can be successfully addressed in primary care settings (Sullivan, Tetrault, Braithwaite, Turner, & Fiellin, 2011). Finally, physicians have used XR-NTX successfully in both hospital and community-based general internal medicine practices (Lee et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Through improved adherence, once-monthly injectable extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) may provide an advantage over other oral agents approved for alcohol and opioid dependence treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate cost and utilization outcomes between XR-NTX and other pharmacotherapies for treatment of alcohol and opioid dependence. Published studies were identified through comprehensive search of two electronic databases. Studies were included if they compared XR-NTX to other approved medicines and reported economic and healthcare utilization outcomes in patients with opioid or alcohol dependence. We identified five observational studies comparing 1,565 patients using XR-NTX to other therapies over six months. Alcohol dependent XR-NTX patients had longer medication refill persistence versus acamprosate and oral naltrexone. Healthcare utilization and costs was generally lower or as low for XR-NTX-treated patients relative to other alcohol dependence agents. Opioid dependent XR-NTX patients had lower inpatient substance abuse-related utilization versus other agents and $8170 lower total cost versus methadone.
    Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 08/2014; 47(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jsat.2014.03.007 · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    • "The medication showed efficacy in decreasing drinking days and decreasing the event rate of heavy drinking days compared to placebo (Garbutt et al., 2005), as well as efficacy in prolonging abstinence and reducing the number of drinking days and heavy drinking days in patients that were abstinent for as few as four days before beginning treatment (O'Malley et al., 2007). While injectable naltrexone addresses the issue of daily patient compliance, the cost of the medication has been cited as a major barrier to adoption in community based substance abuse treatment programs (Abraham & Roman, 2010; Lee et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) continue to be one of the most pervasive and costly of the substance use disorders (SUDs). Despite evidence of clinical effectiveness, adoption of medications for the treatment of AUDs is suboptimal. Low rates of AUD medication adoption have been explained by characteristics of both treatment organizations and individual counselor's attitudes and behaviors. However, few studies have simultaneously examined the impact of organizational-level and counselor-level characteristics on counselor perceptions of EBPs. To address this gap in the literature, we use data from a national sample of 1178 counselors employed in 209 privately funded treatment organizations to examine the effects of organizational and individual counselor characteristics on counselor attitudes toward tablet and injectable naltrexone. Results of hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) show that organizational characteristics (use of tablet/injectable naltrexone in the program, 12-step orientation) were associated with counselor perceptions of naltrexone. Net of organizational characteristics, several counselor level characteristics were associated with attitudes toward tablet and injectable naltrexone including gender, tenure in the field, recovery status, percentage of AUD patients, and receipt of medication-specific training. These findings reveal that counselor receptiveness toward naltrexone is shaped in part by the organizational context in which counselors are embedded.
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