Genistein as a neuroprotective antioxidant attenuates redox imbalance induced by beta-amyloid peptides 25-35 in PC12 cells.
ABSTRACT Genistein (GEN), a principal component of soybean isoflavones, might possess the neuroprotective role through its antioxidant activity. However, the detailed mechanisms are unknown yet. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether GEN could alleviate oxidative damage induced by beta-amyloid peptides 25-35 (Abeta25-35) in PC12 cells.
The PC12 cells were pre-incubated with or without GEN for 2h following incubation with Abeta25-35 for another 24h. MTT was used to assess the cell viability. Hoechst 33342 staining was applied to determine the apoptotic cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was implemented to examine the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was measured by flow cytometry. Reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio was analyzed by using assay kits. Western blot analysis was performed to assess the proteins expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS).
GEN attenuated the cytotoxicity and partially prevented apoptosis induced by Abeta25-35. GEN dramatically attenuated ROS levels induced by Abeta25-35 in PC12 cells. In addition, GEN significantly reversed the reduction of MMP caused by Abeta25-35 to maintain the normal levels of the cells. The GSH/GSSG ratio in GEN pretreated groups significantly increased compared to the groups without GEN pretreatment. GEN reversed Abeta25-35 induced down regulation of the protein expression of gamma-GCS, Nrf2 and HO-1.
GEN could alleviate the oxidative stress caused by Abeta25-35 treatment and maintain redox balance in PC12 cells, which might be associated with the regulation of Nrf2/HO-1 signal pathway.
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ABSTRACT: The disturbance in cholesterol metabolism has been considered as a cause of alzheimer's disease (AD), which dues to the oxidative damage and cell apoptosis in the brain. We aimed to investigate the toxicity and mechanism of AD-like pathology caused by cholesterol oxidation metabolite 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) in astrocyte cells. C6 cells were treated with 0, 5, 10, 20 µM 27-OHC for 24 h (h). The cell viability was monitored by using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium test, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by using 2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate fluorescent probe under flow cytometry. The concentrations of 8-hydroxyl deoxyguanosine, the anti-oxidative enzymes such as total superoxide dismutase (tSOD), reduced glutathione (rGSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were tested by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzymic method, respectively. The gene and protein expression of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1 (NQO1) and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS) in C6 cells were detected by quantitative western blot analysis and real-time PCR analysis. Moreover, the Nrf2 expressions in both of the cytoplasm and nucleus were detected with western blot analysis, and the localization of Nrf2 was performed by immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. 27-OHC increased the levels of ROS and decreased the levels of tSOD, rGSH, GSH-Px in C6 cells dose-dependently. In addition, 27-OHC down regulated the expressions of Nrf2, HO-1, NQO1 and γ-GCS at both of gene and protein levels, while Nrf2 expression in the cytoplasm showed decreased trend after incubated for 24 h with 27-OHC. The cholesterol metabolite 27-OHC is toxic to C6 cells and contributed to oxidative damage via regulating the Nrf2 signaling pathway. Our results suggest that 27-OHC may represent a common pathogenic factor in AD.Neurochemical Research 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11064-015-1524-2 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Genistein (GEN), a major soybean isoflavone (SIF), might possess neuroprotective properties through its anti-inflammatory activity. We hypothesized that GEN could prevent the inflammatory damage detected in C6 cells induced by β-amyloid peptides 25-35 (Aβ25-35). Accordingly, we evaluated the inflammatory damage induced by Aβ25-35 and the protective effect of GEN against Aβ25-35 in C6 cells. In our study, the C6 glial cells (rats glioma cell lines) were preincubated with or without GEN for 2 h following incubation with Aβ25-35 for another 24 h. Then, methylthiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to assess the cell viability. Immunofluorescence staining was used to identify the C6 cells. Inflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β were analyzed by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis were performed to assess the expression of Toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4), inhibitor of kappaB-alpha (IκB-α). The current results showed that GEN could alleviate Aβ25-35-induced cell apoptosis and prevent Aβ25-35-induced TNF-α and IL-1β release from C6 cells. In addition, GEN prevented Aβ25-35-induced upregulation of the gene and protein expression of TLR4, and GEN significantly upregulated the expression of IκB-α in C6 cells damaged by Aβ25-35. These results suggest that GEN can alleviate the inflammatory stress caused by Aβ25-35 treatment, which might be associated with the neuroprotective effect of GEN regulating the TLR4/NFκB signaling pathway.Journal of Medicinal Food 11/2014; DOI:10.1089/jmf.2014.3150 · 1.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The seed of Vigna angularis has long been cultivated as a food or a folk medicine in East Asia. Genistein (4',5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone), a dietary phytoestrogen present in this plant, has been known to possess various biological properties. In this study, we investigated the possible lifespan-extending effects of genistein using Caenorhabditis elegans model system. We found that the lifespan of nematode was significantly prolonged in the presence of genistein under normal culture condition. In addition, genistein elevated the survival rate of nematode against stressful environment including heat and oxidative conditions. Further studies demonstrated that genistein-mediated increased stress tolerance of nematode could be attributed to enhanced expressions of stress resistance proteins such as superoxide dismutase (SOD-3) and heat shock protein (HSP-16.2). Moreover, we failed to find genistein-induced significant change in aging-related factors including reproduction, food intake, and growth, indicating genistein exerts longevity activity independent of affecting these factors. Genistein treatment also led to an up-regulation of locomotory ability of aged nematode, suggesting genistein affects healthspan as well as lifespan of nematode. Our results represent that genistein has beneficial effects on the lifespan of C. elegans under both of normal and stress condition via elevating expressions of stress resistance proteins.Biomolecules and Therapeutics 01/2015; 23(1):77-83. DOI:10.4062/biomolther.2014.075 · 0.84 Impact Factor