Genistein as a neuroprotective antioxidant attenuates redox imbalance induced by β-amyloid peptides 25-35 in PC12 cells
ABSTRACT Genistein (GEN), a principal component of soybean isoflavones, might possess the neuroprotective role through its antioxidant activity. However, the detailed mechanisms are unknown yet. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether GEN could alleviate oxidative damage induced by beta-amyloid peptides 25-35 (Abeta25-35) in PC12 cells.
The PC12 cells were pre-incubated with or without GEN for 2h following incubation with Abeta25-35 for another 24h. MTT was used to assess the cell viability. Hoechst 33342 staining was applied to determine the apoptotic cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was implemented to examine the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was measured by flow cytometry. Reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio was analyzed by using assay kits. Western blot analysis was performed to assess the proteins expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS).
GEN attenuated the cytotoxicity and partially prevented apoptosis induced by Abeta25-35. GEN dramatically attenuated ROS levels induced by Abeta25-35 in PC12 cells. In addition, GEN significantly reversed the reduction of MMP caused by Abeta25-35 to maintain the normal levels of the cells. The GSH/GSSG ratio in GEN pretreated groups significantly increased compared to the groups without GEN pretreatment. GEN reversed Abeta25-35 induced down regulation of the protein expression of gamma-GCS, Nrf2 and HO-1.
GEN could alleviate the oxidative stress caused by Abeta25-35 treatment and maintain redox balance in PC12 cells, which might be associated with the regulation of Nrf2/HO-1 signal pathway.
- SourceAvailable from: José Marcos Gontijo Mandarino
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- "Aglycones forms exhibit higher biological activity and are more metabolically that can be absorved faster in higher amounts than glycosides (Izumi et al. 2000). The isoflavones are associated with the risk reduction or prevention of various diseases, such as breast cancer and prostate cancer (Liggins et al. 2000), osteoporosis, menopause symptoms (Levis et al. 2010), cardiovascular disease (Rimbach et al. 2008), improved memory (Lephart et al. 2002), estrogenic and antioxidant activity (Liu et al. 2010; Ma et al. 2010). Soy contains 2% of the aglycones in relation of the total isoflavones (Matsuura and Obata 1993). "
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the immobilisation efficiency of soybean β-glucosidase (181.6 U/mL; 23.8 mg protein/mL) on activated chitosan beads. Central Composite Rotational Design (CCDR) 23 was used and the application of immobilised enzyme in commercial soy drink was evaluated. The activation of chitosan beads was achieved with established 2.5% glutaraldehyde, pH 7.5, 8 h incubation time (6 h with agitation and 2 h without agitation) at 37ºC. The highest immobilisation efficiency (%) of soybean β-glucosidase on chitosan beads obtained was 37.74 U/mL and 18.84 mg protein/4 chitosan beads at pH 7.5 and 20 h coupling time of enzyme-matrix (7 h with agitation and 13 h without agitation) at 4ºC. The immobilised enzyme incubated at 50ºC, pH 5.5 resulted in 24% increase in the aglycones content in commercial soy drink after 60 min.Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 09/2014; 57(5):766-773. DOI:10.1590/S1516-8913201402331 · 0.45 Impact Factor
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- "Genistein is the aglycone of genistin, which is one of the major isoflavones found in unprocessed soybeans, and it is more abundant in various soy-based products that are currently consumed around the world. Genistein has been shown to have several beneficial functions, including antioxidant [9,10], anti-inflammatory , immuno-modulation  and anti-carcinogenic effects [13,14]. Furthermore, because genistein has been demonstrated to act as a bone-sparing and antiresorptive agent, it has been considered to be a phytoestrogen . "
ABSTRACT: Genistein, a phytoestrogen, has been demonstrated to have a bone-sparing and antiresorptive effect. Genistein can inhibit the osteoclast formation of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced RAW 264.7 cells by preventing the translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), a redox-sensitive factor, to the nucleus. Therefore, the suppressive effect of genistein on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level during osteoclast differentiation and the mechanism associated with the control of ROS levels by genistein were investigated. The cellular antioxidant capacity and inhibitory effect of genistein were confirmed. The translation and activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 1 (Nox1), as well as the disruption of the mitochondrial electron transport chain system were obviously suppressed by genistein in a dose-dependent manner. The induction of phase II antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), was enhanced by genistein. In addition, the translational induction of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was notably increased by genistein. These results provide that the inhibitory effects of genistein on RANKL-stimulated osteoclast differentiation is likely to be attributed to the control of ROS generation through suppressing the translation and activation of Nox1 and the disruption of the mitochondrial electron transport chain system, as well as ROS scavenging through the Nrf2-mediated induction of phase II antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD1 and HO-1.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 06/2014; 15(6):10605-10621. DOI:10.3390/ijms150610605 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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- "Recent laboratory findings indicate that isoflavones may protect against dementia. Gen was protective against oxidative injury caused by Aβ 25–35 treatment, and it helped to maintain redox balance in PC12 cells . Gen could also rescue neurons from Aβ-induced cell death by inhibiting the activation of p38 MAP kinase . "
ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the presence of extracellular deposits of amyloid, primarily composed of the amyloid β-protein (Aβ). A growing body of evidence indicates that oligomeric forms of Aβ play a critical role in disease causation. Soybean isoflavones are flavonoids with an isoflavone backbone. Isoflavones have been reported to protect against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in cultured cell systems, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Our previous studies demonstrated that red wine-related flavonoids with a flavone backbone are able to inhibit Aβ assembly and destabilize preformed Aβ aggregates. Here, we show that isoflavones, especially glycitein and genistein, have anti-fibrillization, anti-oligomerization and fibril-destabilizing effects on Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42)in vitro at physiological pH and temperature, by using nucleation-dependent polymerization monitored by thioflavin T fluorescence, atomic force microscopy, electron microscopy, and photo-induced cross-linking of unmodified proteins followed by SDS-PAGE. Our three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopic analyses demonstrated that glycitein interacted with Aβ monomers, oligomers and fibrils, indicating specific binding of glycitein to these Aβ species. Glycitein also interacted with different Aβ fragments (Aβ(1-42), Aβ(1-40), Aβ(1-16) and Aβ(25-35)), exhibiting the highest fluorescence enhancement with Aβ(25-35). We speculated that glycitein's anti-amyloidogenic properties are specifically mediated by its binding to Aβ monomers, oligomers and fibrils. Isoflavones may hold promise as a treatment option for preventative strategies targeting amyloid formation in Alzheimer's disease.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 05/2012; 1822(8):1316-24. DOI:10.1016/j.bbadis.2012.05.006 · 4.66 Impact Factor