The ameliorating effect of the extract of the flower of Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina on drug-induced memory impairments in mice
Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina is widely distributed in Korea, Japan, China, and Europe, and its flowers are used to treat inflammation in traditional Chinese medicine. In the present study, we studied the effects of the ethanolic extract of the flower of P. vulgaris var. lilacina (EEPV) on drug-induced learning and memory impairment using the passive avoidance, the Y-maze, and the Morris water maze tasks in mice. EEPV (25 or 50 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments in the passive avoidance and Y-maze tasks (P<0.05). In the Morris water maze task, EEPV (25 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly shortened escape latencies in training-trials. Furthermore, swimming times within the target zone during the probe-trial were significantly increased as compared with scopolamine-treated mice (P<0.05). In addition, the reduced latency induced by MK-801 treatment in the passive avoidance task was ameliorated by EEPV (25 mg/kg, p.o.) (P<0.05). Additionally, the ameliorating effect of EEPV on scopolamine-induced memory dysfunction was antagonized by a sub-effective dose of MK-801. These results suggest that EEPV would be useful for treating cognitive impairments induced by cholinergic dysfunction, and that it exerts its effects via NMDA receptor signaling.
Available from: Dong Hyun Kim
- "The acquisition trial was conducted at 25 min after the administration of scopolamine. The dose of MK-801 in the present study was used not to impair the passive avoidance task performance when administered alone (Kim et al., 2010; Park et al., 2010). In the memory enhancing study, EEZS (100 or 200 mg/kg) alone without scopolamine was administered 1 h before the acquisition trial. "
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ABSTRACT: In the present study, we investigated the effect of ethanolic extract of the seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa (EEZS) on cholinergic blockade-induced memory impairment in mice. Male ICR mice were treated with EEZS. The behavioral tests were conducted using the passive avoidance, the Y-maze, and the Morris water maze tasks. EEZS (100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly ameliorated the scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in our present behavioral tasks without changes of locomotor activity. The ameliorating effect of EEZS on scopolamine-induced memory impairment was significantly reversed by a sub-effective dose of MK-801 (0.0125 mg/kg, s.c.). In addition, single administration of EEZS in normal naïve mouse enhanced latency time in the passive avoidance task. Western blot analysis was employed to confirm the mechanism of memory-ameliorating effect of EEZS. Administration of EEZS (200 mg/kg) increased the level of memory-related signaling molecules, including phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase or cAMP response element-binding protein in the hippocampal region. Also, the time-dependent expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor by the administration of EEZS was markedly increased from 3 to 9 h. These results suggest that EEZS has memory-ameliorating effect on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment, which is mediated by the enhancement of the cholinergic neurotransmitter system, in part, via NMDA receptor signaling, and that EEZS would be useful agent against cognitive dysfunction such as Alzheimer's disease.
Biomolecules and Therapeutics 07/2013; 21(4):299-306. DOI:10.4062/biomolther.2013.043 · 1.73 Impact Factor
- "A white platform (6 cm in diameter and 29 cm high) was placed in one of the pool quadrants and submerged 1 cm below the water surface so that it was not visible. The test was conducted as previously described (Park et al., 2010b), with slight modifications. The first experimental day was dedicated to swimming training for 60 s in the absence of the platform. "
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ABSTRACT: Salvianolic acid B (SalB) is a polyphenolic compound found in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge that has several anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we investigated whether SalB has neuroprotective effects in an amyloid β (Aβ) peptide-induced Alzheimer's disease mouse model. Mice were injected with Aβ25-35 peptide intracerebroventricularly and were subsequently administered SalB once daily for 7 days. Subchronic SalB administration (10mg/kg) significantly ameliorated the Aβ25-35 peptide-induced memory impairment in the passive avoidance task (P<0.05). SalB treatment also reduced the number of activated microglia and astrocytes that were observed during the inflammatory reaction after the administration of the Aβ25-35 peptide. Moreover, SalB markedly reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression levels and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, which were increased by the administration of the Aβ25-35 peptide. Furthermore, SalB administration significantly rescued the Aβ25-35 peptide-induced decrease of choline acetyltransferase and brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein levels. These results suggest that SalB exerts neuroprotective activity via anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects and that SalB may be a potential candidate for Alzheimer's disease therapy.
European journal of pharmacology 02/2013; 704(1-3). DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2013.02.015 · 2.53 Impact Factor
Available from: naturalproduct.skku.edu
- "The EEPV was made as reported previously (Park et al., 2010). The extraction of EEPV was as described previously (Park et al., 2010). To obtain EEPV, in brief, dried P. vulgaris var. "
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ABSTRACT: The ethanol extract of the flower of P. vulgaris var. lilacina (EEPV) has been used traditionally as an antiinflammatory agent in many countries. Inducers of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) reduce high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a late phase cytokine, in sepsis. Although EEPV has been used as an antiinflammatory agent, no report is available as to whether it modifies HMGB1 in sepsis due to HO-1 induction. It was found that EEPV increased HO-1 protein expression in RAW 264.7 cells, which was significantly inhibited by LY294002, but not PD98059, SB203580 or SP600125. In addition, EEPV activated NF-E2-related factor (Nrf2) to move from the cytosol to the nucleus, and EEPV-induced HO-1 and activation of ARE-luciferase activity were significantly reduced by siNrf2 transfection and LY294002 but not SB203508. EEPV also significantly inhibited NF-κB luciferase activity, and decreased both iNOS/NO and COX-2/PGE(2) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages which was reversed by siHO-1 RNA transfection. Importantly, EEPV inhibited HMGB1 release in LPS-activated macrophages in a PI3K-sensitive manner and reduced serum HMGB1 level and lung HMGB1 expression in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced septic mice. It is concluded that EEPV induces HO-1 expression through PI3K/Nrf2 signal pathways, which may be beneficial for the treatment of sepsis due to a reduction of HMGB1 release.
Phytotherapy Research 04/2012; 26(4):605-12. DOI:10.1002/ptr.3613 · 2.66 Impact Factor
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