Surgical protocols and outcome for the treatment of maxillofacial fractures in children: 9 years' experience.
ABSTRACT Trauma and facial fractures in a population of children have been analysed in several studies mainly regarding their incidence and much less their treatment modalities.
The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse the treatment methods and outcome of facial fractures in children and young adolescents during the last decade and to discuss findings and propose treatment protocols.
Patients of the Paediatric Maxillofacial department, treated for fractures of the facial skeleton were included in the study. Open reduction and osteosynthesis plate fixation (titanium and resorbable material) was the main treatment method with conservative treatment saved for selected cases. Titanium plates were removed after bone healing. Intermaxillary fixation (IMF) was not used regularly in mandibular fractures, with the exception of condylar fractures.
156 children and young adolescents with 208 fracture sites in total were treated. 139 fracture sites (66.8%) were treated with open reduction and 69 conservatively. The mandible was affected in 49.0% of the cases, the maxilla in 21.2% (both with the alveolar process fractures included), the zygomatic complex in 10.1%, the orbital walls in 9.6%. There were 38 alveolar process fractures.
The results of the fracture treatment verified the usefulness of open reduction and plate fixation in children. There was no need for wire suspension and only occasional need for IMF. Closed reduction was selectively applied in condylar fractures and dento-alveolar trauma.