Why Do Clinicians Maintain Antidepressants in Some Patients With Acute Mania? Hints From the European Mania in Bipolar Longitudinal Evaluation of Medication (EMBLEM), a Large Naturalistic Study
ABSTRACT Antidepressants are supposed to be withdrawn during a manic episode. The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of manic patients who received antidepressants during a manic phase in a large, naturalistic study.
The European Mania in Bipolar Longitudinal Evaluation of Medication was a 2-year prospective observational study of inpatients and outpatients with acute mania/mixed mania (DSM-IV or ICD-10 criteria) conducted in 14 European countries. Of 2,416 manic patients who continued into the maintenance phase of the study, 345 (14%) were taking an antidepressant and 2,071 (86%) were not taking an antidepressant at baseline, week 1, and/or week 2 postbaseline. Demographic and clinical variables were collected at baseline and each study visit up to 24 months. Outcome measures included the Clinical Global Impressions-Bipolar Disorder scale (CGI-BP overall, mania, and depression scores) at 12 weeks and 24 months, the 5-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-5), and the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) at 12 weeks only. The present study was conducted from December 2002 to June 2004.
More antidepressant maintenance use was seen in patients with mixed episodes (P < .001), rapid cyclers (P < .02), patients with more previous depressive episodes (P < .001), and patients with higher mean HDRS-5 score at baseline (P < .001)-specifically patients with anxiety (P = .013). Patients in the antidepressant group had significantly higher CGI-BP depression scores (P < .001) and a significantly higher rate of depression relapse (P < .001) at both 12 weeks and 24 months.
Patients with mania receiving antidepressants are more likely to be outpatients with mixed episodes, anxiety, or rapid cycling and have a higher risk of depression relapse during follow-up.
American Journal of Psychiatry 10/2014; 171(10):1023-1026. DOI:10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.14070826 · 13.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the increase in the prevalence of bipolar disorder with mixed features following the replacement of DSM-IV-TR criteria with DSM-5 criteria. Additionally, we examined the clinical implications of the use of “with mixed features” as a specifier with bipolar disorder.Method We retrospectively reviewed medical charts from 2003 to 2013. A total of 331 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder using the DSM-IV TR were enrolled and categorized into four groups: manic/hypomanic with mixed features, manic/hypomanic without mixed features, depressed with mixed features, and depressed without mixed features. These classifications were made in accordance with the DSM-5 definition of bipolar disorder “with mixed features.” Changes in the prevalence, demographic and clinical characteristics were compared among the groups.ResultsThe prevalence rates of mixed features were significantly different when using the DSM-5 criteria vs. the DSM-IV-TR criteria. Patients with mixed features had a younger age of onset, younger age at hospitalization, more frequent hospitalizations for mixed episodes, and greater suicide risk compared with patients without mixed features.LimitationsRetrospective study may have resulted in under diagnosis of mixed states.Conclusions An approximately three-fold greater risk for mixed features was observed in patients with bipolar disorder when using the DSM-5 criteria than when using the DSM-IV-TR criteria. The additional patients may represent patients with sub-syndromal mixed features and could indicate that patients with mixed features are underdiagnosed.Journal of Affective Disorders 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.10.061 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Bipolar disorder is a complex disease which requires multiple healthcare resources and complex medical care programs including pharmacological and non pharmacological treatment. If mood stabilizers remain the corner stone for bipolar disorder treatment, the development of atypical antipsychotics and their use as mood stabilizers has significantly modified therapeutic care. At the present time, psychiatrists have a large variety of psychotropic drugs for bipolar disorder: mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants, anxiolytics… However, despite the publication of guidelines on pharmacological treatment, with a high degree of consensus, everyday clinical practices remain heterogeneous. Moreover, there are few longitudinal studies to describe therapeutic management of bipolar disorder, whatever the phase of the disease is. Indeed, most of the studies are carried out on a specific phase of the disease or treatment. And there is no study comparing French and European practices. Objectives In this paper, we aim to present the comparison of the management of pharmacological treatments of bipolar disorder between France and Europe, using the data of the observational Wide AmbispectiVE study of the clinical management and burden of bipolar disorder (WAVE-bd study). Methods The WAVE-bd study is a multinational, multicentre and non-interventional cohort study of patients diagnosed with BD type I or type II, according to DSM IV-TR criteria, in any phase of the disorder, who have experienced at least one mood event during the 12 months before enrolment. In total, 2507 patients have been included across 8 countries of Europe (480 in France). Data collection was retrospective (from 3 to 12 months), but also prospective (from 9 to 15 months) for a total study length of 12 to 27 months. Main outcome measures were the healthcare resource use and pharmacological treatments. Results Our results show differences in the therapeutic management of bipolar disorder between France and other European countries. Regarding healthcare resource use, our results show that French patients consult more frequently a psychiatrist or a psychologist and less frequently a general practitioner or the emergency ward in comparison with patients from other European countries. In the whole European population, including France, atypical antipsychotics are widely used. Only 25% of the patients receive lithium and more than 50% of the patients receive antidepressants, while their use in bipolar disorder remains controversial. Most of the patients receive polymedication. Considering all phases of the disease pooled, less lithium and less atypical antipsychotics are prescribed to French patients, whereas they receive more antidepressants and more benzodiazepines than patients from other European countries. On the over hand, prescription of anticonvulsants and electroconvulsive therapy are equal. Moreover, data analyses by polarity of the episodes globally confirm these trends. There are a few exceptions: mixed states, in which lithium is twice more prescribed in France in comparison to other countries; depressive states, in which antidepressants are even more prescribed in other countries than in France; and less prescription of anticonvulsants in manic, mixed and euthymic phases in France. Conclusion The WAVE-bd study is the first observational study conducted on a large sample of bipolar I and II patients that compares therapeutic management between France and other European countries. The differences observed in therapeutic care across the different phases of the disease show that treatments differ depending on the countries studied, but also according to the preventive or curative phases, polarity of the bipolar disorder, comorbidities, impact of guidelines, and care organization. Although French patients have been treated by less lithium and less atypical antipsychotics than other European patients, they receive more antidepressants and more benzodiazepines. Finally, patients generally receive polymedication and the diversity in prescriptions shows how bipolar disorder is a complex disorder.L Encéphale 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.encep.2014.08.002 · 0.60 Impact Factor