Article

A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Study of Divalproex Sodium Extended-Release in the Acute Treatment of Mania

The University of Texas Medical Branch, Department of Psychiatry, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, TX 77555, USA.
The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 5.14). 03/2010; 71(4):426-32. DOI: 10.4088/JCP.08m04960yel
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Divalproex sodium extended-release (ER) was examined for the treatment of acute mania in adults in 2 randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials. One study demonstrated statistically significant improvements in mania symptoms compared to placebo, while an earlier study did not. Results of the earlier study are presented here.
A total of 225 DSM-IV-diagnosed bipolar I disorder patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to 21 days of double-blind treatment with divalproex ER (n = 147) or placebo (n = 78). The daily divalproex ER dosage was initiated at 20 mg/kg. The primary efficacy variable was the change from baseline to final evaluation in Mania Rating Scale (MRS) score. Subjects were discontinued from the study if they were discharged from the hospital or if they met prespecified improvement criteria. The study was conducted from May 1998 to July 1999 at centers in the United States.
There was no statistically significant difference in MRS score change from baseline to final for patients treated with divalproex ER compared with those treated with placebo. With the exception of back pain and constipation, adverse event rates between placebo and divalproex ER were very similar. A large proportion of patients prematurely discontinued study treatment (divalproex ER: 83%, placebo: 82%). The mean daily dose of divalproex ER was 2,211 mg with a mean maximum serum valproic acid concentration of 77.9 microg/mL.
The results of the current study did not demonstrate statistically significant improvement in mania symptoms associated with divalproex ER treatment compared to placebo. A number of methodological considerations may have contributed to the negative findings, including allowance for early study discontinuation and lower than optimal dosing.
clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00060905.

0 Followers
 · 
304 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Yatham LN, Kennedy SH, Parikh SV, Schaffer A, Beaulieu S, Alda M, O'Donovan C, MacQueen G, McIntyre RS, Sharma V, Ravindran A, Young LT, Milev R, Bond DJ, Frey BN, Goldstein BI, Lafer B, Birmaher B, Ha K, Nolen WA, Berk M. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) and International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) collaborative update of CANMAT guidelines for the management of patients with bipolar disorder: update 2013. Bipolar Disord 2012: 00: 000-000. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments published guidelines for the management of bipolar disorder in 2005, with updates in 2007 and 2009. This third update, in conjunction with the International Society for Bipolar Disorders, reviews new evidence and is designed to be used in conjunction with the previous publications.The recommendations for the management of acute mania remain largely unchanged. Lithium, valproate, and several atypical antipsychotic agents continue to be first-line treatments for acute mania. Monotherapy with asenapine, paliperidone extended release (ER), and divalproex ER, as well as adjunctive asenapine, have been added as first-line options.For the management of bipolar depression, lithium, lamotrigine, and quetiapine monotherapy, as well as olanzapine plus selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), and lithium or divalproex plus SSRI/bupropion remain first-line options. Lurasidone monotherapy and the combination of lurasidone or lamotrigine plus lithium or divalproex have been added as a second-line options. Ziprasidone alone or as adjunctive therapy, and adjunctive levetiracetam have been added as not-recommended options for the treatment of bipolar depression. Lithium, lamotrigine, valproate, olanzapine, quetiapine, aripiprazole, risperidone long-acting injection, and adjunctive ziprasidone continue to be first-line options for maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. Asenapine alone or as adjunctive therapy have been added as third-line options.
    Bipolar Disorders 12/2012; 15(1). DOI:10.1111/bdi.12025 · 4.89 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To review the efficacy of pharmacological agents in bipolar mixed states. We conducted a PubMed search of all English-language articles involving Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved agents for manic/mixed states in adults with bipolar I disorder. We also included names of agents established as efficacious in acute mania/mixed states that have not received FDA approval for bipolar disorder. Bibliographies from relevant articles were also searched. The efficacy of each agent in the mixed state subpopulation was reviewed, as evidenced by change from baseline on total scores of mania [e.g., Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS)] and depression [e.g., Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS)] measures. No available study is dedicated exclusively to the evaluation of mixed state populations. Although key inclusion and exclusion criteria are similar across treatment studies, mixed states have been variably defined and measured. The use of conventional manic and depressive metrics in bipolar mixed states perpetuates the unproven notion that mixed states are the consequence of coexisting depression and mania. Notwithstanding the methodological limitations, there are numerically more studies that exist for atypical antipsychotic agents than for any other class. On the basis of symptomatic improvement, recommendations for and/or strong admonishments against any established antimanic agents (e.g., lithium) cannot be made. An emergent signal supports combination treatment strategies (e.g., atypical antipsychotic plus divalproex) over mood stabilizer monotherapy (e.g., divalproex). Available evidence does not empirically support the hypothesis that conventional antipsychotics engender and/or amplify depressive symptoms in bipolar mixed states. All proven antimanic agents (including lithium), can be recommended in the treatment of mixed/dysphoric states. The totality of evidence with attention paid to the therapeutic index of each agent would suggest that atypical antipsychotics and divalproex be considered as first-line treatment, with lithium and carbamazepine as second-line. Most individuals will require combination therapy for the treatment of mixed states; variable combinations of atypical antipsychotics and conventional mood stabilizers have the most replicated evidence.
    Bipolar Disorders 05/2012; 14 Suppl 2:22-36. DOI:10.1111/j.1399-5618.2012.00990.x · 4.89 Impact Factor
  • Source
    European Neuropsychopharmacology 09/2011; 21. DOI:10.1016/S0924-977X(11)70341-8 · 5.40 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
28 Downloads
Available from
Jul 31, 2014