Antipsychotic treatments for the elderly: Efficacy and safety of aripiprazole

Division of Geriatric Psychiatry, Ambulatory Care Pavilion, Zucker-Hillside Hospital, Glen Oaks, NY, USA.
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment (Impact Factor: 1.74). 03/2010; 6(1):47-58.
Source: PubMed


Delusions, hallucinations and other psychotic symptoms can accompany a number of conditions in late life. As such, elderly patients are commonly prescribed antipsychotic medications for the treatment of psychosis in both acute and chronic conditions. Those conditions include schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and dementia. Elderly patients are at an increased risk of adverse events from antipsychotic medications because of age-related pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic changes as well as polypharmacy. Drug selection should be individualized to the patient's previous history of antipsychotic use, current medical conditions, potential drug interactions, and potential side effects of the antipsychotic. Specifically, metabolic side effects should be closely monitored in this population. This paper provides a review of aripiprazole, a newer second generation antipsychotic agent, for its use in a variety of psychiatric disorders in the elderly including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, dementia, Parkinson's disease and depression. We will review the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of aripiprazole as well as dosing, diagnostic indications, efficacy studies, and tolerability including its metabolic profile. We will also detail patient focused perspectives including quality of life, patient satisfaction and adherence.

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    • "In recent years, mortality of schizophrenia has shown a decreasing trend following the general improvement of psychiatric and medical care, enabling many patients with schizophrenia to live into older adulthood (Kohen et al., 2010). Compared with their younger counterparts , older schizophrenia patients are more likely to have drug-induced side effects and poor general health (Uchida et al., 2009b; Meyers and Jeste, 2010); therefore, treatment guidelines for younger adult patients are not entirely applicable to this population. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to examine the use of high doses of antipsychotic medications (≥600 mg/day chlorpromazine equivalent) in older Asian patients with schizophrenia and its demographic and clinical correlates. Information on hospitalized patients with schizophrenia aged ≥50 years was extracted from the database of the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns study (2001-2009). Data on 2203 patients in six Asian countries and territories, including China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Singapore and Taiwan, were analyzed. Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics and antipsychotic prescriptions were recorded. The frequency for high-dose antipsychotic medications was 36.0% overall, with 38.4% in 2001, 33.3% in 2004 and 36.0% in 2009. Multiple logistic regression analysis of the whole sample showed that compared to patients receiving low-medium antipsychotic doses, those on high doses had a longer illness duration (odds ratio (OR): 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.2-3.3, p = 0.008), were more likely in the 50-59-year group (OR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.94-0.97, p < 0.001), more often had current positive (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.8, p < 0.001) or negative symptoms (OR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.03-1.6, p = 0.03), and more commonly received antipsychotic polypharmacy (OR: 5.3, 95% CI: 4.1-6.7, p < 0.001). Extrapyramidal symptoms (p = 0.25) and tardive dyskinesia (p = 0.92) were not more frequent in the high-dose group. High doses of antipsychotic medications were used in more than one third of older Asian patients with schizophrenia. The reasons for the frequent use of high antipsychotic doses in older Asian patients warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 04/2014; 29(4). DOI:10.1002/gps.4011 · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    • "Many patients with schizophrenia live into older adulthood (Kohen et al., 2010). In contrast to younger patients, older patients with schizophrenia are a special population characterized by higher likelihood of drug-induced side effects, poorer general health and the need for lower doses of psychotropic medications (Meyers and Jeste, 2010; Uchida et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study examined the prescribing patterns of several first- (FGAs) and second-generation antipsychotic (SGAs) medications administered to older Asian patients with schizophrenia during the period between 2001 and 2009. Method: Information on hospitalized patients with schizophrenia aged 65 or older was extracted from the database of the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Patterns (REAP) study (2001-2009). There were no older patients in Thailand, therefore data on 467 patients in eight Asian countries and territories including China, Hong Kong SAR, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, and Taiwan were analysed. Cross-sectional socio-demographic data, clinical characteristics and antipsychotic prescriptions were assessed using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. Results: Of the 467 patients, 192 patients (41.1%) received FGAs only, 166 (35.5%) received SGAs only and 109 (23.3%) received a combination of FGAs and SGAs. Of the FGAs, haloperidol was the most commonly used (31.3%; mean 9.4 ± 6.7 mg/day), followed by chlorpromazine (15.4%; mean 126.4 ± 156.4 mg/day) and sulpiride (6.6%; mean 375.0 ± 287.0 mg/day). Of the SGAs, risperidone was the most commonly used (31.5%; mean 4.5 ± 2.7 mg/day), followed by olanzapine (13.1%; mean 13.6 ± 6.5 mg/day), quetiapine (7.3%; mean 325.0 ± 237.3 mg/day) and aripiprazole (1.9%; mean 17.6 ± 7.7 mg/day). Conclusions: FGAs and higher doses of certain SGAs (risperidone, olanzapine and quetiapine) were still commonly dispensed to older Asian patients with schizophrenia. Considering older patients' reduced tolerability of potentially severe side effects associated with FGAs and higher doses of certain SGAs, continuing education and training addressing the rational use of antipsychotics in this population is clearly needed.
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 07/2012; 46(12). DOI:10.1177/0004867412453625 · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Worsening memory is a common complaint in the elderly and predictably causes affected individuals and their families to wonder whether the underlying cause is Alzheimer disease, the most common form of dementia. Alzheimer disease is a devastating illness that unavoidably leads to a complete loss of independence and, as a result, substantial emotional, physical, and financial distress for patients and their families. The causes and severity of memory impairment in the elderly are diverse, however, so any given case might not necessarily be secondary to a neurodegenerative disorder such as Alzheimer disease. Consequently, it is critical to rule out potentially reversible causes of dementia and to initiate treatment while cognitive and functional deficits are still mild and more likely to respond to treatment. Furthermore, identifying the etiology and defining a suitable treatment plan early in the course of dementia allows patients to be more actively involved in the management of their disease and is more likely to improve quality of life for both patients and caregivers. This review presents the etiology of dementia in the elderly, describes the diagnostic process, and discusses current therapeutic strategies, including pharmacological agents, nonpharmacological interventions, safety assessments, legal issues, and caregiver needs.
    Reviews in neurological diseases 01/2011; 8(3-4):e68-87. DOI:10.3909/rind0272
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