HERC2 coordinates ubiquitin-dependent assembly of DNA repair factors on damaged chromosomes.

Centre for Genotoxic Stress Research, Department of Proteomics in Cancer, Institute of Cancer Biology, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Nature Cell Biology (Impact Factor: 20.06). 04/2010; 12(4):412. DOI: 10.1038/ncb0410-412
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Regulatory ubiquitylation is emerging as an important mechanism to protect genome integrity in cells exposed to DNA damage1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. However, the spectrum of known ubiquitin regulators of the DNA damage response (DDR) is limited and their functional interplay is poorly understood. Here, we identify HERC2 as a factor that regulates ubiquitin-dependent retention of repair proteins on damaged chromosomes. In response to ionising radiation (IR), HERC2 forms a complex with RNF8, a ubiquitin ligase involved in the DDR3, 4, 5, 6. The HERC2–RNF8 interaction requires IR-inducible phosphorylation of HERC2 at Thr 4827, which in turn binds to the forkhead-associated (FHA) domain of RNF8. Mechanistically, we provide evidence that HERC2 facilitates assembly of the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc13 with RNF8, thereby promoting DNA damage-induced formation of Lys 63-linked ubiquitin chains. We also show that HERC2 interacts with, and maintains the levels of, RNF168, another ubiquitin ligase operating downstream of RNF8 (Refs 7, 8). Consequently, knockdown of HERC2 abrogates ubiquitin-dependent retention of repair factors such as 53BP1, RAP80 and BRCA1. Together with the increased radiosensitivity of HERC2-depleted cells, these results uncover a regulatory layer in the orchestration of protein interactions on damaged chromosomes and they underscore the role of ubiquitin-mediated signalling in genome maintenance.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: HERC2 is a large E3 ubiquitin ligase with multiple structural domains that has been implicated in an array of cellular processes. Mutations in HERC2 are linked to developmental delays and impairment caused by nervous system dysfunction, such as Angelman Syndrome and autism-spectrum disorders. However, HERC2 cellular activity and regulation remains poorly understood. We used a broad proteomic approach to survey the landscape of cellular proteins that interact with HERC2. We identified nearly three hundred potential interactors, a subset of which we validated binding to HERC2. The potential HERC2 interactors included the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 complex, the intracellular transport COPI coatomer complex, the glycogen regulator phosphorylase kinase, beta-catenin, PI3 kinase and proteins involved in fatty acid transport and iron homeostasis. Through a complex bioinformatic analysis of potential interactors, we linked HERC2 to cellular processes including intracellular protein trafficking and transport, metabolism of cellular energy, and protein translation. Given its size, multi-domain structure and association with various cellular activities, HERC2 may function as a scaffold to integrate protein complexes and bridge critical cellular pathways. This work provides a significant resource with which to interrogate HERC2 function more deeply and evaluate its contributions to mechanisms governing cellular homeostasis and disease.
    Journal of Proteome Research 12/2014; 14(2). DOI:10.1021/pr501005v · 5.00 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: CLASPIN is an essential mediator in the DNA replication checkpoint, responsible for ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein)-dependent activation of CHK1 (checkpoint kinase 1). Here we found a dynamic signaling pathway that regulates CLASPIN turn over. Under unperturbed conditions, the E3 ubiquitin ligase HERC2 regulates the stability of the deubiquitinating enzyme USP20 by promoting ubiquitination-mediated proteasomal degradation. Under replication stress, ATR-mediated phosphorylation of USP20 results in the disassociation of HERC2 from USP20. USP20 in turn deubiquitinates K48-linked-polyubiquitinated CLASPIN, stabilizing CLASPIN and ultimately promoting CHK1 phosphorylation and CHK1-directed checkpoint activation. Inhibition of USP20 expression promotes chromosome instability and xenograft tumor growth. Taken together, our findings demonstrated a novel function of HERC2/USP20 in coordinating CHK1 activation by modulating CLASPIN stability, which ultimately promotes genome stability and suppresses tumor growth.
    Nucleic Acids Research 10/2014; 42(21). DOI:10.1093/nar/gku978 · 8.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The DNA damage response triggers cell-cycle checkpoints, DNA repair and apoptosis using multiple post-translational modifications as molecular switches. However, how ubiquitination regulates ATR signaling in response to replication stress and single-strand break is still unclear. Here, we identified the deubiquitination enzyme (DUB) USP20 as a pivotal regulator of ATR-related DDR pathway. Through screening a panel of DUBs, we identified USP20 as critical for replication stress response. USP20 is phosphorylated by ATR, resulting in disassociation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase HERC2 from USP20 and USP20 stabilization. USP20 in turn deubiquitinates and stabilizes Claspin and enhances the activation of ATR-Chk1 signaling. These findings reveal USP20 to be a novel regulator of ATR-dependent DNA damage signaling.
    Nucleic Acids Research 10/2014; 42(21). DOI:10.1093/nar/gku1034 · 8.81 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 17, 2014