Skeletal muscle dysfunction in muscle-specific LKB1 knockout mice.
ABSTRACT Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) is a tumor-suppressing protein that is involved in the regulation of muscle metabolism and growth by phosphorylating and activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) family members. Here we report the development of a myopathic phenotype in skeletal and cardiac muscle-specific LKB1 knockout (mLKB1-KO) mice. The myopathic phenotype becomes overtly apparent at 30-50 wk of age and is characterized by decreased body weight and a proportional reduction in fast-twitch skeletal muscle weight. The ability to ambulate is compromised with an often complete loss of hindlimb function. Skeletal muscle atrophy is associated with a 50-75% reduction in mammalian target of rapamycin pathway phosphorylation, as well as lower peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha coactivator-1 content and cAMP response element binding protein phosphorylation (43 and 40% lower in mLKB1-KO mice, respectively). Maximum in situ specific force production is not affected, but fatigue is exaggerated, and relaxation kinetics are slowed in the myopathic mice. The increased fatigue is associated with a 30-78% decrease in mitochondrial protein content, a shift away from type IIA/D toward type IIB muscle fibers, and a tendency (P=0.07) for decreased capillarity in mLKB1-KO muscles. Hearts from myopathic mLKB1-KO mice exhibit grossly dilated atria, suggesting cardiac insufficiency and heart failure, which likely contributes to the phenotype. These findings indicate that LKB1 plays a critical role in the maintenance of both skeletal and cardiac function.
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ABSTRACT: The liver kinase B1 (LKB1)/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signalling pathway is a major regulator of skeletal muscle metabolic processes. During exercise, LKB1-mediated phosphorylation of AMPK leads to its activation, promoting mitochondrial biogenesis and glucose transport, among other effects. The roles of LKB1 and AMPK have not been fully characterized in the diaphragm. Two methods of AMPK activation were used to characterize LKB1/AMPK signalling in diaphragms from muscle-specific LKB1 knockout (KO) and littermate control mice: (1) acute injection of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) and (2) 5-min direct electrical stimulation of the diaphragm. Diaphragms were excised 60 min post-AICAR injection and immediately after electrical stimulation. AMPK phosphorylation increased with AICAR and electrical stimulation in control but not KO mice. Acetyl CoA carboxylase phosphorylation increased with AICAR in control but not KO mice, but increased in both genotypes with electrical stimulation. While the majority of mitochondrial protein levels were lower in KO diaphragms, uncoupling protein 3, complex I and cytochrome oxidase IV protein levels were not different between genotypes. KO diaphragms have a lower percentage of IIx fibres and an elevated percentage of IIb fibres when compared with control diaphragms. While in vitro peak force generation was similar between genotypes, KO diaphragms fatigued more quickly and had an impaired ability to recover. LKB1 regulates AMPK phosphorylation, mitochondrial protein expression, fibre type distribution, as well as recovery of the diaphragm from fatigue.Acta Physiologica 11/2010; 201(4):457-66. DOI:10.1111/j.1748-1716.2010.02226.x · 4.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Factors that stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle include AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), calcium, and circulating free fatty acids (FFAs). Chronic treatment with either 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR), a chemical activator of AMPK, or increasing circulating FFAs with a high-fat diet increases mitochondria in rat skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the combination of chronic chemical activation of AMPK and high-fat feeding would have an additive effect on skeletal muscle mitochondria levels. We treated Wistar male rats with a high-fat diet (HF), AICAR injections (AICAR), or a high-fat diet and AICAR injections (HF + AICAR) for 6 wk. At the end of the treatment period, markers of mitochondrial content were examined in white quadriceps, red quadriceps, and soleus muscles, predominantly composed of unique muscle-fiber types. In white quadriceps, there was a cumulative effect of treatments on long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, cytochrome c, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) protein, as well as on citrate synthase and beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (beta-HAD) activity. In contrast, no additive effect was noted in the soleus, and in the red quadriceps only beta-HAD activity increased additively. The additive increase of mitochondrial markers observed in the white quadriceps may be explained by a combined effect of two separate mechanisms: high-fat diet-induced posttranscriptional increase in PGC-1alpha protein and AMPK-mediated increase in PGC-1alpha protein via a transcriptional mechanism. These data show that chronic chemical activation of AMPK and a high-fat diet have a muscle type specific additive effect on markers of fatty acid oxidation, the citric acid cycle, the electron transport chain, and transcriptional regulation.Journal of Applied Physiology 08/2010; 109(2):511-20. DOI:10.1152/japplphysiol.00126.2010 · 3.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) β subunits (β1 and β2) provide scaffolds for binding α and γ subunits and contain a carbohydrate-binding module important for regulating enzyme activity. We generated C57Bl/6 mice with germline deletion of AMPK β2 (β2 KO) and examined AMPK expression and activity, exercise capacity, metabolic control during muscle contractions, aminoimidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) sensitivity, and susceptibility to obesity-induced insulin resistance. We find that β2 KO mice are viable and breed normally. β2 KO mice had a reduction in skeletal muscle AMPK α1 and α2 expression despite up-regulation of the β1 isoform. Heart AMPK α2 expression was also reduced but this did not affect resting AMPK α1 or α2 activities. AMPK α1 and α2 activities were not changed in liver, fat, or hypothalamus. AICAR-stimulated glucose uptake but not fatty acid oxidation was impaired in β2 KO mice. During treadmill running β2 KO mice had reduced maximal and endurance exercise capacity, which was associated with lower muscle and heart AMPK activity and reduced levels of muscle and liver glycogen. Reductions in exercise capacity of β2 KO mice were not due to lower muscle mitochondrial content or defects in contraction-stimulated glucose uptake or fatty acid oxidation. When challenged with a high-fat diet β2 KO mice gained more weight and were more susceptible to the development of hyperinsulinemia and glucose intolerance. In summary these data show that deletion of AMPK β2 reduces AMPK activity in skeletal muscle resulting in impaired exercise capacity and the worsening of diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance.Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2010; 285(48):37198-209. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M110.102434 · 4.60 Impact Factor