Ultra-low fouling and functionalizable zwitterionic coatings grafted onto SiO2 via a biomimetic adhesive group for sensing and detection in complex media
ABSTRACT Non-specific protein binding from human plasma and serum has severely hindered the full capabilities of biosensors concerned with cancer biomarker detection. Currently, there is a strong desire for developing new materials which allow for the convenient attachment of an ultra-low fouling and functionalizable surface coating which can be used for highly sensitive and label-free detection of target analytes directly from complex media. In this work, a short 20 min in situ "graft to" protocol using Tris pH 8.5 buffer was developed for zwitterionic carboxybetaine methacrylate (CBMA) polymer conjugates containing the adhesive biomimetic moiety, 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (DOPA), on SiO(2) substrates. Using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor, different buffers, pH values, salt concentrations, and temperatures were investigated for determining the "graft to" conditions that yield dense polymer films which both minimize non-specific protein adsorption and maximize antibody immobilization. The optimized surface coatings were shown to be highly protein resistant to 100% human blood plasma and serum. Subsequent antibody functionalized surfaces without any blocking agents enabled the specific detection of the cancer biomarker ALCAM directly from undiluted human serum down to 64 ng/mL. The successful use of this zwitterionic surface coating for detection from complex media on SiO(2) surfaces indicates its potential for broad impacts in the development of implantable medical devices, in vivo diagnostics, and nano-scale biosensors.
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- "One example is to use 3,4-dihy- droxy-L-phenylalanine (DOPA) as the surface anchor group to graft zwitterionic pCB Figure 3. Three approaches to immobilize pCBs onto materials surfaces. to the surface for cancer biomarker detection. Another convenient 'graft-to' strategy was to use hydrophobic–hydrophobic interactions to immobilize polymers onto the substrate, using a triblock copolymer containing a poly(propylene oxide) hydrophobic block and two hydrophilic CB blocks. "
ABSTRACT: Zwitterionic polycarboxybetaine (pCB)-based materials have drawn special attention due to their outstanding properties of resisting proteins adsorption, biofilm formation and cell attachment on a variety of substrates and surfaces, reducing the uptake of pCB-coated nanosized materials, as well as providing the capability of further functionalization. Zwitterionic pCBs have been proven to be excellent choices for many applications, not only limited to the field of antifouling. This review will summarize the recent progress on the development of pCB materials and the understanding of the structure-function-property relationships of carboxybetaine materials.Journal of Biomaterials Science Polymer Edition 06/2014; 25(14-15):1-12. DOI:10.1080/09205063.2014.927300 · 1.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We show that optimizing EUV yield from laser-heated droplet targets requires matching the pulsewidth to the droplet size if the emission feature is from collisional excitation; it can be longer if the feature is from recombination.
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