Article

Ultra-low fouling and functionalizable zwitterionic coatings grafted onto SiO2 via a biomimetic adhesive group for sensing and detection in complex media

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1750, USA.
Biosensors & Bioelectronics (Impact Factor: 6.45). 03/2010; 25(10):2276-82. DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2010.03.012
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Non-specific protein binding from human plasma and serum has severely hindered the full capabilities of biosensors concerned with cancer biomarker detection. Currently, there is a strong desire for developing new materials which allow for the convenient attachment of an ultra-low fouling and functionalizable surface coating which can be used for highly sensitive and label-free detection of target analytes directly from complex media. In this work, a short 20 min in situ "graft to" protocol using Tris pH 8.5 buffer was developed for zwitterionic carboxybetaine methacrylate (CBMA) polymer conjugates containing the adhesive biomimetic moiety, 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (DOPA), on SiO(2) substrates. Using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor, different buffers, pH values, salt concentrations, and temperatures were investigated for determining the "graft to" conditions that yield dense polymer films which both minimize non-specific protein adsorption and maximize antibody immobilization. The optimized surface coatings were shown to be highly protein resistant to 100% human blood plasma and serum. Subsequent antibody functionalized surfaces without any blocking agents enabled the specific detection of the cancer biomarker ALCAM directly from undiluted human serum down to 64 ng/mL. The successful use of this zwitterionic surface coating for detection from complex media on SiO(2) surfaces indicates its potential for broad impacts in the development of implantable medical devices, in vivo diagnostics, and nano-scale biosensors.

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    • "One example is to use 3,4-dihy- droxy-L-phenylalanine (DOPA) as the surface anchor group to graft zwitterionic pCB Figure 3. Three approaches to immobilize pCBs onto materials surfaces. to the surface for cancer biomarker detection.[19] Another convenient 'graft-to' strategy was to use hydrophobic–hydrophobic interactions to immobilize polymers onto the substrate, using a triblock copolymer containing a poly(propylene oxide) hydrophobic block and two hydrophilic CB blocks.[59] "
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