Determination of silver nanoparticle release from antibacterial fabrics into artificial sweat

National Nanotechnology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 111 Thailand Science Park, Phahonyothin Road, Pathumthani, 12120, Thailand.
Particle and Fibre Toxicology (Impact Factor: 6.99). 04/2010; 7(1):8. DOI: 10.1186/1743-8977-7-8
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Silver nanoparticles have been used in numerous commercial products, including textiles, to prevent bacterial growth. Meanwhile, there is increasing concern that exposure to these nanoparticles may cause potential adverse effects on humans as well as the environment. This study determined the quantity of silver released from commercially claimed nanosilver and laboratory-prepared silver coated fabrics into various formulations of artificial sweat, each made according to AATCC, ISO and EN standards. For each fabric sample, the initial amount of silver and the antibacterial properties against the model Gram-positive (S. aureus) and Gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria on each fabric was investigated. The results showed that silver was not detected in some commercial fabrics. Furthermore, antibacterial properties of the fabrics varied, ranging from 0% to greater than 99%. After incubation of the fabrics in artificial sweat, silver was released from the different fabrics to varying extents, ranging from 0 mg/kg to about 322 mg/kg of fabric weight. The quantity of silver released from the different fabrics was likely to be dependent on the amount of silver coating, the fabric quality and the artificial sweat formulations including its pH. This study is the unprecedented report on the release of silver nanoparticles from antibacterial fabrics into artificial sweat. This information might be useful to evaluate the potential human risk associated with the use of textiles containing silver nanoparticles.

Download full-text


Available from: Rawiwan Maniratanachote, Jul 01, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) are increasingly used in consumer products and their release during the use phase may negatively affect aquatic ecosystems. Research efforts, so far, have mainly addressed the application and use of metallic Ag(0)-NP. However, as shown by recent studies on the release of Ag from textiles, other forms of Ag, especially silver chloride (AgCl), are released in much larger quantities than metallic Ag(0). In this field study, we report the release of AgCl-NP from a point source (industrial laundry that applied AgCl-NP during a piloting phase over a period of several months to protect textiles from bacterial regrowth) to the public sewer system and investigate the transformation of Ag during its transport in the sewer system and in the municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). During the study period, the laundry discharged ~85g of Ag per day, which dominated the Ag loads in the sewer system from the respective catchment (72-95%) and the Ag in the digested WWTP sludge (67%). Combined results from electron microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the Ag discharged from the laundry to the sewer consisted of about one third AgCl and two thirds Ag2S, both forms primarily occurring as nanoparticles with diameters<100nm. During the 800m transport in the sewer channel to the nearby WWTP, corresponding to a travel time of ~30min, the remaining AgCl was transformed into nanoparticulate Ag2S. Ag2S-NP also dominated the Ag speciation in the digested sludge. In line with results from earlier studies, the very low Ag concentrations measured in the effluent of the WWTP (<0.5μgL(-1)) confirmed the very high removal efficiency of Ag from the wastewater stream (>95%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Science of The Total Environment 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.12.075 · 4.10 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have antibacterial characteristics, and currently are applied in Ag-containing products. This study found neural cells can uptake 3-5 nm AgNPs, and investigated the potential effects of AgNPs on gene expression of inflammation and neurodegenerative disorder in murine brain ALT astrocytes, microglial BV-2 cells and neuron N2a cells. After AgNPs (5, 10, 12.5 μg/ml) exposure, these neural cells had obviously increased IL-1β secretion, and induced gene expression of C-X-C motif chemokine 13 (CXCL13), macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) and glutathione synthetase (GSS) for inflammatory response and oxidative stress neutralization. Additionally, this study found amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques for pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) deposited in neural cells after AgNPs treatment. After AgNPs exposure, the gene expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) was induced, and otherwise, neprilysin (NEP) and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) were reduced in neural cells as well as protein level. These results suggested AgNPs could alter gene and protein expressions of Aβ deposition potentially to induce AD progress in neural cells. It's necessary to take notice of AgNPs distribution in the environment.
    Environmental Research 01/2015; 136. DOI:10.1016/j.envres.2014.11.006 · 3.95 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In order to assess the possible risks of applications containing engineered nanomaterials, it is essential to generate more data about their release and exposure, so far largely overlooked areas of research. The aim of this work was to study the characterization of the materials released from paint containing nano-SiO2 during weathering and exposure to water. Panels coated with nano-SiO2 containing paint and a nano-free reference paint were exposed to accelerated weathering cycles in a climate chamber. The total release of 89 six-hour cycles of UV-illumination and precipitation was 2.3% of the total SiO2 contained in the paint. Additional tests with powdered and aged paint showed that the majority of the released Si was present in dissolved form and that only a small percentage was present in particulate and nano-particulate form. TEM imaging of the leachates indicated that the majority of the particulate Si was contained in composites together with Ca, representing the paint matrix, and only few single dispersed SiO2-NPs were detected. The results suggest that toxicological and ecotoxicological studies need to consider that the released particles may have been transformed or are embedded in a matrix.
    Chemosphere 03/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.02.005 · 3.50 Impact Factor