The relationship between diet and breast cancer is uncertain. We assessed the relationship of 4 common dietary patterns to the risk of breast cancer using the UK Women's Cohort Study (UKWCS). A total of 35,372 women aged between 35 to 69 yr were recruited from 1995 to 1998. The UKWCS was selected to have a wide range of dietary intakes; 28% were self-reported vegetarian. Diet was assessed at baseline by a 217-item food frequency questionnaire. Four dietary patterns were defined based on a hierarchy of consumption of fish and meat to reflect commonly consumed dietary patterns. Hazards ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox regression adjusted for known confounders. Subjects were followed up for a mean of 9 yr, and 330 premenopausal and 453 postmenopausal women developed invasive breast cancer. In postmenopausal women, there was a strong inverse association between the fish eating dietary pattern 0.60 (95% CI = 0.38-0.96) but not for a vegetarian pattern 0.85 (95% CI = 0.58-1.25) compared to red meat eaters. There were no statistically significant associations with dietary pattern and risk of premenopausal breast cancer. A fish eating dietary pattern that excludes meat from the diet may confer some benefit with regard to risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.
"A study of over 51,000 postmenopausal women followed over more than 8 years showed that women who consumed 30 grams or more of fiber from fruit and whole grains had 34% less breast cancer than those who consumed less quantities of those items. Notably, lignan fiber seemed to be more protective than fruit and vegetable fibers . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The intestinal microbiome plays an important role in human physiology. Next-generation sequencing technologies, knockout and gnotobiotic mouse models, fecal transplant data and epidemiologic studies have accelerated our understanding of microbiome abnormalities seen in immune diseases and malignancies. Dysbiosis is the disturbed microbiome ecology secondary to external pressures such as host diseases, medications, diet and genetic conditions often leading to abnormalities of the host immune system. Specifically dysbiosis has been shown to lower circulating lymphocytes, and increase neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, a finding which has been associated with a decreased survival in women with breast cancers. Dysbiosis also plays a role in the recycling of estrogens via the entero-hepatic circulation, increasing estrogenic potency in the host, which is another leading cause of breast malignancy. Non-modifiable factors such as age and genetic mutations disrupt the microbiome, but modifiable factors such as diet may also lead to profound disruptions as well. A better understanding of dietary factors and how they disrupt the microbiome may lead to beneficial nutritional interventions for breast cancer patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ObjectivesTo conduct a systematic review of published evidence around seafood, health and seniors.MethodData sources reviewing included: Proquest; PubMed; Science Direct; Taylor and Francis; Cochran Collaboration; Web of Knowledge and Web of Science. Key search terms included seniors, ageing, fish, seafood, protein, health and various lifestyle conditions Results A diet high in marine source Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids affords particular benefits for seniors in a reduced risk of all cause mortality, with the strongest evidence around coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke. Other benefits include reduced inflammation associated with arthritis and delay to onset and slowed progression of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Conclusion There is increasing evidence to support the regular seafood consumption (particularly oily fish) as being protective against a number of aged-related health conditions. Seniors should be encouraged to consume 3500mg- 4000mg of marine source Omega-3 PUFAs each week.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the risk of developing breast cancer associated with consumption of two common dietary patterns: a Mediterranean dietary pattern and a dietary pattern, which conforms to the World Health Organization Healthy Diet Index (WHO HDI).
Dietary data from a 217-item food frequency questionnaire were used to generate two dietary patterns according to pre-defined criteria in women from the UK Women's Cohort Study. Survival analysis using Cox regression was used to estimate hazards ratios for risk of breast cancer adjusted for known confounders.
This analysis included 828 incident cases of breast cancer in 33,731 women with a mean follow-up of 9 years. There were no statistically significant associations between either the Mediterranean dietary pattern or the WHO HDI and risk of breast cancer. In premenopausal women, there was a nonsignificant trend suggesting that increasing compliance with the Mediterranean diet was associated with lower risk of breast cancer. Maximal adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with hazards ratio=0.65 (95% confidence interval: 0.42-1.02, P trend=0.09) compared with minimal adherence. In postmenopausal women, no clear trends were observed.
In this study, no strong association between the risk of breast cancer and the consumption of either a Mediterranean-type diet or one characterized by adherence to the WHO HDI was observed. In premenopausal, but not postmenopausal women, there was a nonsignificant inverse association with increasing adherence to the Mediterranean diet pattern.
European journal of clinical nutrition 05/2011; 65(8):920-8. DOI:10.1038/ejcn.2011.69 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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