Variations of the origin and branches of the external carotid artery in a human cadaver.

Department of Anatomy, Universiti Kuala Lumpur Royal College of Medicine Perak, 3 Jalan Greentown, Ipoh, Malaysia.
Singapore medical journal (Impact Factor: 0.6). 02/2010; 51(2):e40-2.
Source: PubMed


We report a unique variation in the origin and branches of both the left and right external carotid artery (ECA) found during the dissection of a human cadaver. Knowledge of the possible anatomical variations of the ECA is especially important in facio-maxillary and neck surgeries. Surgeons need to be aware of the possibility of encountering such variations, as they may lead to difficulties in differentiating between the external and internal carotid arteries, and in identifying the branches and origins. This knowledge is also important for radiologists in the image interpretation of the face and neck regions.

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    • "CCA normally divides into external carotid artery (ECA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) at the level of upper border of thyroid cartilage (Williams et al., 1995). It is important for the surgeons to differentiate between ECA and ICA to ensure that the artery being ligated is ECA, as the ligation of ICA may result in hemiparesis (Thwin et al., 2010). Variations of CCA and ECA may be asymptomatic and therefore care must be taken during routine surgeries of head and neck (Kishve et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: The common carotid arteries are the major source of blood supply to the region of head and neck. Normally external carotid artery gives eight branches in the region of neck. All of them arise independently as separate branches. In the present case, we found lingual and facial arteries arising from a common trunk i.e. linguofacial trunk from the front of external carotid artery on the right side. While on the left side, lingual and facial arteries were arising separately from external carotid artery. Such anatomical variations of external carotid artery are important for surgeons in surgeries of head and neck region and also for radiologists in the image interpretation of the face and neck region. Key words: External Carotid artery, Linguofacial trunk, Variations
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    • "The CCA bifurcates into ECA & ICA at the upper border of thyroid cartilage i.e., at third cervical vertebra [1]. Philippe Gailloud et al [2] reported intra thoracic carotid bifurcation at T4. Bifurcation of CCA as high as at the hyoid bone i.e., at C2 have been reported by Gluncic et al [3] and Thwin et al [4]. The origin of occipital artery from carotid bifurcation has been reported by Quain 1884 [5], Livini 1903 [6], Adachi 1928 [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: During a routine dissection in the Department of Anatomy of the Rural Medical College, Loni, we found a rare variation in branching pattern of the common carotid artery (CCA) and external carotid artery (ECA) bilaterally. The knowledge of possible anatomical variations of CCA and ECA are especially important in the surgeries of head, neck and face; and also for the radiologist to understand and interpret carotid system imaging when undertaking cerebral angiography. This case and the clinical significance of this variation are reported in this paper.
    Australasian Medical Journal 01/2011; 4(4):180-2. DOI:10.4066/AMJ.2011.637
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