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Available from: Fred R Hirsch, Oct 10, 2015
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    • "This new approach to accurate eventual diagnoses on biopsy/cytology represents a revolution in the clinical landscape of lung cancer therapy [3]. Indeed, it determined a " paradigm shift " [15] able to expand immunophenotyping to extreme degrees of diagnostic responsibility. KEY MESSAGES: The application of the term LCC is restricted to undifferentiated primary non-small-cell lung tumor exhaustively analyzed on surgically resected specimens and totally lacking squamous , glandular or NE lineage. "
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    ABSTRACT: Large cell carcinoma (LCC) is a merely descriptive term indicating a subtype of lung cancer with no specific features of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), adenocarcinoma (ADC) or squamous cell carcinoma (SQC). This diagnosis is allowed on surgical specimens only, whereas its counterpart in biopsy/cytology samples is non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), not otherwise specified (NOS). Although these two terms do not fulfill the same concept, they can be interchangeable synonyms at the clinical level, reflecting, in different ways, the inability to define a specific subtype. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), next generation sequencing (NGS) analysis and, historically, electron microscopy have been unveiling diverse cell differentiation lineages in LCC, resulting in LCC-favor ADC, LCC-favor SQC and LCC-favor large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), the latter hopefully to be included into the neuroendocrine tumor (NET) group in the future. Paradoxically, however, the interpretation issues of LCC/NSCLC-NOS are not diminishing, but even increasing albeight an accurate diagnosis is oncologically required and crucial. Also, rare LCC/NSCLC-NOS cases exhibiting null/unclear phenotype, are difficult to classify, and this terminology could be maintained for the sake of classification (basically these tumors are serendipitous ADC, as also confirmed by the lack of p40). In this review article, seven relevant issues to LCC have been addressed by using a question-answer methodology, with final key points discussing major interpretation issues. In conclusion, most LCC/NSCLC-NOS may be eventually re-classified and addressed by exploiting IHC and/or molecular testing to satisfy the criteria of precision medicine (the right drug, to the right patient, at the right time).
    Lung Cancer 01/2015; 87(3). DOI:10.1016/j.lungcan.2015.01.008 · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    • "These studies pioneered the use of the histological subtypes as key determinants of treatment strategies for advanced NSCLC. The most current Multidisciplinary Classification of Lung Adenocarcinoma, jointly issued by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society, recommends that NOS be assigned as infrequently as possible (10,11). However, a NOS classification is unavoidable in specific cases, as routine morphology and immunohistochemistry cannot differentiate certain tumor cells. "
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    ABSTRACT: The histological subtype of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a significant factor when selecting treatment strategies. However, cases are occasionally encountered that are diagnosed as 'not otherwise specified' (NOS) prior to surgery, due to an uncertain histological subtype. The present study investigated the prognostic significance of the NOS subtype for patients with resectable NSCLC. Between 2001 and 2011, 1,913 patients were diagnosed with NSCLC using transbronchial biopsy and underwent surgical resection at two facilities in Japan. Of these patients, 151 (7.9%) were pre-operatively diagnosed with NSCLC-NOS (NOS group) and the remainder had confirmed histological subtypes (confirmed group). The present study compared the clinicopathological features and prognoses of these groups. Analyses of resected specimens revealed that pleomorphic cell carcinoma, large cell neuroendocrine cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma were significantly more common in the NOS group than in the confirmed group (P<0.001, P=0.002, P=0.019 and P=0.014, respectively). The five-year survival rate was significantly poorer in the NOS group (60.5 vs. 67.1%; P=0.010), particularly for stage I disease (70.8 vs. 80.7%; P=0.007). The results of a multivariate analysis of overall survival indicated that NOS was a significant independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.86; P=0.041). These results indicated that pre-operative NOS was significantly associated with poorer survival, including for stage I disease. In conjunction with other clinicopathological parameters, NOS can be a useful prognostic factor when deciding on a treatment strategy for NSCLC.
    Oncology letters 09/2014; 8(3):1017-1024. DOI:10.3892/ol.2014.2302 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    • "Furthermore, the precise subclassifications of lung cancer are critical for the effective management of patients [20]. A false classification will result in delayed treatment and lead to high mortality. "
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    ABSTRACT: The majority of lung cancer patients are diagnosed at advanced stages of disease. This study evaluated the diagnostic value of ThinPrep (TP) bronchial brushing cytology in lung cancer. A total of 595 patients with suspicious lung cancer were enrolled in this study. The bronchial brushing samples were prepared by TP. The data were then compared to histology of lung tissue samples. Histologically, 479 of these 595 patients were diagnosed with lung cancer, including 223 cases of lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 77 cases of lung adenocarcinoma (ADC), and 152 cases of small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). The TP cytology revealed a total of 460 cases of lung cancer (including 232 SCCs, 91 ADCs, and 108 SCLCs). The TP cytological technique had 87.06% sensitivity and 62.93% specificity in the diagnosis of lung cancer. Specifically, TP cytology confirmed 195 of 223 SCCs, 47 of 77 ADCs, and 94 of 152 SCLCs. The TP cytology showed 87.44% sensitivity and 90.05% specificity for the diagnosis of SCC, with a Matthew's correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.820; while the sensitivity was reduced to 61.04% and the specificity was 90.93% for the diagnosis of ADC, with a MCC of 0.464. For the diagnosis of SCLC, the sensitivity was 61.84% and the specificity was 96.84%, with a MCC of 0.648. Thus, this study demonstrated the usefulness of TP bronchial brushing cytology in the early diagnosis of lung cancer, especially the early stage of lung SCC. A prospective clinical trial will verify these data before being translated into the clinic.
    PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e90163. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0090163 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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