Pistachios Increase Serum Antioxidants and Lower Serum Oxidized-LDL in Hypercholesterolemic Adults

Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.
Journal of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 4.23). 03/2010; 140(6):1093-8. DOI: 10.3945/jn.109.117366
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Pistachios are high in lutein, beta-carotene, and gamma-tocopherol relative to other nuts; however, studies of the effects of pistachios on oxidative status are lacking. We conducted a randomized, crossover controlled-feeding study to evaluate 2 doses of pistachios on serum antioxidants and biomarkers of oxidative status in 28 hypercholesterolemic adults (LDL-cholesterol >or=2.86 mmol/L). Participants consumed 3 isoenergetic diets for 4 wk each after a 2-wk baseline Western diet. Experimental diets included a lower-fat control diet without pistachios (25% total fat) with 1 serving/d (i.e. 32-63 g/d; energy adjusted) of pistachios (1 PD; 10% energy from pistachios; 30% total fat) or with 2 servings/d (63-126 g/d; energy adjusted) of pistachios (2 PD; 20% energy from pistachios; 34% total fat). When participants consumed the pistachio-enriched diets, they had higher plasma lutein (P < 0.0001), alpha-carotene, and beta-carotene (P < 0.01) concentrations than after the baseline diet. After consuming the pistachio diets, participants had greater plasma lutein (P < 0.001) and gamma-tocopherol (P < 0.05; 2 PD only) relative to the lower-fat control diet. After the 2 PD diet period, participants also had lower serum oxidized-LDL concentrations than following the baseline diet period (P < 0.05). After both the 1 PD and 2 PD diet periods, they had lower serum oxidized-LDL concentrations than after the control diet period (P < 0.05). The change in oxidized-LDL from baseline correlated positively with the change in LDL-cholesterol across all treatments (r = 0.42; P < 0.005). After controlling for the change in serum LDL-cholesterol as a covariate, increases in serum lutein and gamma-tocopherol following the 2 PD period were still modestly associated with decreases in oxidized-LDL (r = -0.36, P = 0.06 and r = -0.35, P = 0.08, respectively). This suggests that a heart-healthy diet including pistachios contributes to the decrease in the serum oxidized-LDL concentration through cholesterol-lowering and may provide an added benefit as a result of the antioxidants the pistachios contain.

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Available from: Colin D Kay, Aug 17, 2015
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    • "A number of studies have shown beneficial effects of pistachio consumption on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, such as lipids, endothelial function, inflammation, blood pressure and oxidative status (Gebauer et al., 2008; Kay et al., 2010; Sari et al., 2010; Zhang et al., 2010; West et al., 2012). Phytochemicals previously identified from pistachios include phytosterols, fatty acids, lutein and tocopherols (USDA 2007; Philips et al., 2005; Wu & Prior, 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the antimicrobial properties of polyphenol-rich fractions derived from raw shelled and roasted salted pistachios. A range, ATCC, food and clinical isolates, of Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas mirabilis), Gram-positive bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus faecium, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus), the yeasts Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis and the fungus Aspergillus niger were used. Pistachio extracts were active against Gram-positive bacteria with a bactericidal effect observed against L. monocytogenes (ATCC strains and food isolates), Staph. aureus and MRSA clinical isolates. Extracts from raw shelled pistachios were more active than those from roasted salted pistachios. The bactericidal activity of pistachio extracts could be used to help control the growth of some microorganisms in foods in order to improve safety and may find application as a topical treatment of Staph. aureus. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 01/2013; 341(1). DOI:10.1111/1574-6968.12091 · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    • "Hence, pistachio supplementation may improve blood lipids in experimental hyperlipidemia, which may have beneficial applications in the prevention or treatment of obesity. Kay et al. [89] evaluated the effect of two doses of pistachios on the oxidative status of 28 hypercholesterolemic subjects. The results showed that pistachios contributed to the decrease in serum oxidized LDL concentration through a cholesterol-lowering effect. "
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    ABSTRACT: Nuts are an integral part of the Mediterranean food patterns, and their incorporation into the regular diets of human beings is believed to provide many health benefits. The recent recognition of nuts as "heart-healthy" foods by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has given a major boost to the positive image of nuts. Nut consumption has been associated with several health benefits, such as antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic benefits, among other functional properties. However, although nuts possess these many health benefits, their consumption has been hampered by a lack of adequate information regarding those benefits. In addition, because nuts are energy-dense foods with high-fat content, there is a misconception among consumers that increased consumption may lead to unwanted gain in body weight with the risk of developing overweight/obesity. Nonetheless, available epidemiologic studies and short-term controlled feeding trials have supported the theory that the inclusion of nuts in the typical diet does not induce weight gain, despite an expected increase in total caloric intake. To address the misperception about nuts and body weight gain, the present review focuses mainly on the relation between nut consumption and body weight gain, in the context of the many health benefits of nuts.
    Nutrition 11/2012; 28(11-12):1089-97. DOI:10.1016/j.nut.2012.01.004 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    • "Monounsaturated fat tends to raise high-density lipoprotein cholesterol when exchanged for carbohydrate, and the Mensink and Katan equation also attribute a small but important low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering effect to monounsaturated fat (Mensink and Katan, 1992). This lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol is supported by a number of studies, which have shown that pistachios (Edwards et al., 1999; Kocyigit et al., 2006; Sheridan et al., 2007; Gebauer et al., 2008; Kay et al., 2010; Sari et al., 2010), almonds (Griel and Kris-Etherton, 2006) and walnuts (Banel and Hu, 2009) can potentially reduce the risk of CVD by improving serum lipid concentrations. "
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary strategies that reduce post-prandial glycemia are important in the prevention and treatment of diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD). This may be achieved by addition of high-quality protein and fat contained in pistachio nuts, to carbohydrate-containing foods or meals. A total of 10 healthy volunteers (3 males, 7 females); aged 48.3±6.4 years; Body mass index (BMI) 28.0±4.8 kg/m(2) participated in two studies. Study 1 assessed the dose-response effect of 28, 56 and 84 g pistachios consumed alone or co-ingested with white bread (50 g available carbohydrate); Study 2 assessed the effective dose (56 g) of pistachios on post-prandial glycemia consumed with different commonly consumed carbohydrate foods (50 g available carbohydrate). Relative glycemic responses (RGRs) of study meals compared with white bread, were assessed over the 2 h post-prandial period. The RGRs of pistachios consumed alone expressed as a percentage of white bread (100%) were: 28 g (5.7±1.8%); 56 g (3.8±1.8%); 84 g (9.3±3.2%), P<0.001. Adding pistachios to white bread resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the RGR of the composite meal; 28 g (89.1±6.0, P=0.100); 56 g (67.3±9.8, P=0.009); 84 g (51.5±7.5, P<0.001). Addition of 56 g pistachios to carbohydrate foods significantly reduced the RGR: parboiled rice (72.5±6.0) versus rice and pistachios (58.7±5.1) (P=0.031); pasta (94.8±11.4) versus pasta and pistachios (56.4±5.0) (P=0.025); whereas for mashed potatoes (109.0±6.6) versus potatoes and pistachios, (87.4±8.0) (P=0.063) the results approached significance. Pistachios consumed alone had a minimal effect on post-prandial glycemia and when taken with a carbohydrate meal attenuated the RGR. The beneficial effects of pistachios on post-prandial glycemia could, therefore, be part of the mechanism by which nuts reduce the risk of diabetes and CHD.
    European journal of clinical nutrition 03/2011; 65(6):696-702. DOI:10.1038/ejcn.2011.12 · 2.95 Impact Factor
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