Kay CD, Gebauer SK, West SG, Kris-Etherton PM. Pistachios increase serum antioxidants and lower serum oxidized-LDL in hypercholesterolemic adults. J Nutr 140, 1093-1098

Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.
Journal of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.88). 03/2010; 140(6):1093-8. DOI: 10.3945/jn.109.117366
Source: PubMed


Pistachios are high in lutein, beta-carotene, and gamma-tocopherol relative to other nuts; however, studies of the effects of pistachios on oxidative status are lacking. We conducted a randomized, crossover controlled-feeding study to evaluate 2 doses of pistachios on serum antioxidants and biomarkers of oxidative status in 28 hypercholesterolemic adults (LDL-cholesterol >or=2.86 mmol/L). Participants consumed 3 isoenergetic diets for 4 wk each after a 2-wk baseline Western diet. Experimental diets included a lower-fat control diet without pistachios (25% total fat) with 1 serving/d (i.e. 32-63 g/d; energy adjusted) of pistachios (1 PD; 10% energy from pistachios; 30% total fat) or with 2 servings/d (63-126 g/d; energy adjusted) of pistachios (2 PD; 20% energy from pistachios; 34% total fat). When participants consumed the pistachio-enriched diets, they had higher plasma lutein (P < 0.0001), alpha-carotene, and beta-carotene (P < 0.01) concentrations than after the baseline diet. After consuming the pistachio diets, participants had greater plasma lutein (P < 0.001) and gamma-tocopherol (P < 0.05; 2 PD only) relative to the lower-fat control diet. After the 2 PD diet period, participants also had lower serum oxidized-LDL concentrations than following the baseline diet period (P < 0.05). After both the 1 PD and 2 PD diet periods, they had lower serum oxidized-LDL concentrations than after the control diet period (P < 0.05). The change in oxidized-LDL from baseline correlated positively with the change in LDL-cholesterol across all treatments (r = 0.42; P < 0.005). After controlling for the change in serum LDL-cholesterol as a covariate, increases in serum lutein and gamma-tocopherol following the 2 PD period were still modestly associated with decreases in oxidized-LDL (r = -0.36, P = 0.06 and r = -0.35, P = 0.08, respectively). This suggests that a heart-healthy diet including pistachios contributes to the decrease in the serum oxidized-LDL concentration through cholesterol-lowering and may provide an added benefit as a result of the antioxidants the pistachios contain.

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Available from: Colin D Kay, Oct 03, 2015
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    • "The oxidized LDL AUC0-5h did not differ between diets, but following consumption of walnuts, oxidized LDL was reduced compared to baseline at 2 hours postmeal Figure 1. Oxidative modification of LDL is thought to play a role in the development of atherosclerosis and reductions in postprandial LDL have been reported following consumption of pecans [49] and pistachios [50]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In vitro studies rank walnuts (Juglans regia) among the plant foods high in antioxidant capacity, but whether the active constituents of walnuts are bioavailable to humans remains to be determined. The intention of this study was to examine the acute effects of consuming walnuts compared to refined fat on meal induced oxidative stress. At issue is whether the ellagitannins and tocopherols in walnuts are bioavailable and provide postprandial antioxidant protection. A randomized, crossover, and controlled-feeding study was conducted to evaluate a walnut test meal compared to one composed of refined ingredients on postprandial serum antioxidants and biomarkers of oxidative status in healthy adults (n = 16) with at least 1 week between testing sessions. Following consumption of a low phenolic diet for one day and an overnight fast, blood was sampled prior to the test meals and at intervals up to 24 hours post ingestion and analyzed for total phenols, malondiadehyde (MDA), oxidized LDL, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), hydrophilic and lipophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), uric acid, catechins and urinary excretion of phenylacetate metabolites and of urolithin A. Mixed linear models demonstrated a diet effect (P < 0.001) for plasma gamma-tocopherol but not for alpha-tocopherol with the walnut meal. Following the walnut test meal, the incremental 5 hour area under the curve (AUC0-5h) was reduced 7.4% for MDA, increased 7.5% for hydrophilic and 8.5% for lipophilic ORAC and comparable for total phenols, FRAP and uric acid. Oxidized LDL was reduced at 2 hours after the walnut meal. Plasma concentrations of gallocatechin gallate (GCG), epicatechin gallate (ECG) and epicallocatechin gallate (EGCG) increased significantly at 1 hour after the walnut test meal. Quantities of urolithin-A excreted in the urine were significantly higher following the walnut meal. Compared to the refined control meal, the walnut meal acutely increased postprandial gamma-tocopherol and catechins and attenuated some measures of oxidative stress.
    Nutrition Journal 01/2014; 13(1):4. DOI:10.1186/1475-2891-13-4 · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    • "A number of studies have shown beneficial effects of pistachio consumption on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, such as lipids, endothelial function, inflammation, blood pressure and oxidative status (Gebauer et al., 2008; Kay et al., 2010; Sari et al., 2010; Zhang et al., 2010; West et al., 2012). Phytochemicals previously identified from pistachios include phytosterols, fatty acids, lutein and tocopherols (USDA 2007; Philips et al., 2005; Wu & Prior, 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the antimicrobial properties of polyphenol-rich fractions derived from raw shelled and roasted salted pistachios. A range, ATCC, food and clinical isolates, of Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas mirabilis), Gram-positive bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus faecium, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus), the yeasts Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis and the fungus Aspergillus niger were used. Pistachio extracts were active against Gram-positive bacteria with a bactericidal effect observed against L. monocytogenes (ATCC strains and food isolates), Staph. aureus and MRSA clinical isolates. Extracts from raw shelled pistachios were more active than those from roasted salted pistachios. The bactericidal activity of pistachio extracts could be used to help control the growth of some microorganisms in foods in order to improve safety and may find application as a topical treatment of Staph. aureus. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 01/2013; 341(1). DOI:10.1111/1574-6968.12091 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    • "Hence, pistachio supplementation may improve blood lipids in experimental hyperlipidemia, which may have beneficial applications in the prevention or treatment of obesity. Kay et al. [89] evaluated the effect of two doses of pistachios on the oxidative status of 28 hypercholesterolemic subjects. The results showed that pistachios contributed to the decrease in serum oxidized LDL concentration through a cholesterol-lowering effect. "
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    ABSTRACT: Nuts are an integral part of the Mediterranean food patterns, and their incorporation into the regular diets of human beings is believed to provide many health benefits. The recent recognition of nuts as "heart-healthy" foods by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has given a major boost to the positive image of nuts. Nut consumption has been associated with several health benefits, such as antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic benefits, among other functional properties. However, although nuts possess these many health benefits, their consumption has been hampered by a lack of adequate information regarding those benefits. In addition, because nuts are energy-dense foods with high-fat content, there is a misconception among consumers that increased consumption may lead to unwanted gain in body weight with the risk of developing overweight/obesity. Nonetheless, available epidemiologic studies and short-term controlled feeding trials have supported the theory that the inclusion of nuts in the typical diet does not induce weight gain, despite an expected increase in total caloric intake. To address the misperception about nuts and body weight gain, the present review focuses mainly on the relation between nut consumption and body weight gain, in the context of the many health benefits of nuts.
    Nutrition 11/2012; 28(11-12):1089-97. DOI:10.1016/j.nut.2012.01.004 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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