Decrease in dietary K intake stimulates the generation of superoxide anions in the kidney and inhibits K secretory channels in the CCD.
ABSTRACT We previously demonstrated that K depletion inhibited ROMK-like small-conductance K channels (SK) in the cortical collecting duct (CCD) and that the effect was mediated by superoxide anions that stimulated Src family protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (51). However, because animals on a K-deficient diet had a severe hypokalemia, superoxide-dependent signaling may not regulate ROMK channels under physiological conditions with a normal plasma K concentration. In the present study, we used the patch-clamp technique and Western blot to examine the effect of a moderate K restriction on ROMK-like SK channels and the role of PTK and MAPK in regulating apical K channels in the CCD of animals on a low-K diet (LK; 0.1% K). Rats and mice fed a LK diet for 7 days had a normal plasma K concentration. However, a LK intake increased the expression of angiotensin II type 1 receptor in the kidney. Moreover, patch-clamp experiments demonstrated that LK intake decreased the probability finding SK channels and channel activity defined by NP(o) (a product of channel number and open probability) in the CCD of both rat and mouse kidneys. Also, LK intake significantly stimulated the production of superoxide anions in the renal cortex and outer medulla in both rats and mice and increased superoxide level in the rat CCD. Moreover, LK intake augments the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK MAPK, the expression of c-Src and tyrosine phosphorylation of ROMK channels. However, treatment of animals with tempol abolished the effect of LK intake on MAPK and c-Src and increased ROMK channel activity in comparing with those of nontreated rats on a LK diet. Inhibiting p38 and ERK with SB202190 and PD98059 significantly stimulated SK in the CCD in rats on a LK diet. In addition, inhibition of PTK with herbimycin A activated SK channels in the CCD from rats on a LK diet. We conclude that LK intake stimulates the generation of superoxide anion and related products and that MAPK and Src family PTK play a physiological role in inhibiting apical K channels in the principal cells in response to LK intake.
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ABSTRACT: Extracellular K(+) homeostasis has been explained by feedback mechanisms in which changes in extracellular K(+) concentration drive renal K(+) excretion directly or indirectly via stimulating aldosterone secretion. However, this cannot explain meal-induced kaliuresis, which often occurs without increases in plasma K(+) or aldosterone concentrations. Recent studies have produced evidence supporting a feedforward control in which gut sensing of dietary K(+) increases renal K(+) excretion (and extrarenal K(+) uptake) independent of plasma K(+) concentrations, namely, a gut factor. This review focuses on these new findings and discusses the role of gut factor in acute and chronic regulation of extracellular K(+) as well as in the beneficial effects of high K(+) intake on the cardiovascular system.Seminars in Nephrology 05/2013; 33(3):248-56. · 2.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The central goal of this overview article is to summarize recent findings in renal epithelial transport, focusing chiefly on the connecting tubule (CNT) and the cortical collecting duct (CCD). Mammalian CCD and CNT are involved in fine tuning of electrolyte and fluid balance through reabsorption and secretion. Specific transporters and channels mediate vectorial movements of water and solutes in these segments. Although only a small percent of the glomerular filtrate reaches the CNT and CCD, these segments are critical for water and electrolyte homeostasis since several hormones, e.g. aldosterone and arginine vasopressin, exert their main effects in these nephron sites. Importantly, hormones regulate the function of the entire nephron and kidney by affecting channels and transporters in the CNT and CCD. Knowledge about the physiological and pathophysiological regulation of transport in the CNT and CCD and particular roles of specific channels/transporters has increased tremendously over the last two decades. Recent studies shed new light on several key questions concerning the regulation of renal transport. Precise distribution patterns of transport proteins in the CCD and CNT will be reviewed, and their physiological roles and mechanisms mediating ion transport in these segments will be also covered. Special emphasis will be given to pathophysiological conditions appearing as a result of abnormalities in renal transport in the CNT and CCD.Comprehensive Physiology. 01/2012; 2:1541-1584.