[8-[Bis(carboxymethyl)aminomethyl]-6-bromo-7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl]methyl moieties as photoremovable protecting groups for compounds with COOH, NH2, OH, and C=O functions.
ABSTRACT We introduce a variant of coumarin-based photoactivatable protecting groups and use it exemplarily for caging of a carboxylic acid, an amine, a phenol, and a carbonyl compound. The caged compounds are efficiently photolyzed at long-wavelength UV/vis irradiation. Compared to the corresponding (6-bromo-7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl)methyl (Bhc) derivatives, the novel coumarin-type caged compounds are distinguished by (i) dramatically increased solubilities in aqueous buffers, (ii) lower pK(a) values of the C7 hydroxyl of the coumarin chromophore, thus permitting efficient photorelease at lower pH, and (iii) higher photolysis quantum yields in the case of photoprotected carbonyl compounds. The primary step of the photocleavages occurs with rate constants of about 10(9) s(-1).
- SourceAvailable from: Marina Rautenbach[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tryptophan and arginine-rich cyclic hexapeptides of the type cyclo-RRRWFW combine high antibacterial activity with rapid cell killing kinetics, but show low toxicity in human cell lines. The peptides fulfil the structural requirements for membrane interaction such as high amphipathicity and cationic charge, but membrane permeabilisation, which is the most common mode of action of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), could not be observed. Our current studies focus on elucidating a putative membrane translocation mechanism whereupon the peptides might interfere with intracellular processes. These investigations require particular analytical tools: fluorescent analogues and peptides bearing appropriate reactive groups were synthesized and characterized in order to be used in confocal laser scanning microscopy and HPLC analysis. We found that minimal changes in both the cationic and hydrophobic domain of the peptides in most cases led to significant reduction of antimicrobial activity and/or changes in the mode of action. However, we were able to identify two modified peptides which exhibited properties similar to those of the cyclic parent hexapeptide and are suitable for subsequent studies on membrane translocation and uptake into bacterial cells.Pharmaceuticals 08/2013; 6:1130-1144.