Vitamin D and vitamin A receptor expression and the proliferative effects of ligand activation of these receptors on the development of pancreatic progenitor cells derived from human fetal pancreas.
ABSTRACT The growth and development of pancreatic islet cells are regulated by various morphogens. Vitamin A modulates in vitro differentiation of islet cells and vitamin D affects beta-cell insulin secretion, while both vitamin ligands act through heterodimerization with the retinoid X receptor (RXR). However, their effects in modulating pancreatic development have not been determined. In this study, cultured human pancreatic progenitor cells (PPCs) isolated from human fetal pancreas were stimulated to differentiate into islet-like cell clusters (ICCs). RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunocytochemistry were used to examine the expression and localization of vitamin D receptor (VDR), retinoic acid receptor (RAR), and RXR in PPCs. The effects of added all-trans retinoic acid (atRA, a form of vitamin A), calcitriol (activated vitamin D) and of these ligands together on PPC cell viability, proliferation and apoptosis were assessed by MTT, BrdU and ELISA assays, respectively. Post-treatment neurogenin-3 (NGN3) expression, necessary for islet-cell lineage development, was examined by real-time RT-PCR. Results showed that RAR, RXR and VDR were expressed in PPCs. RAR and RXR were localized in nuclei, and the VDR in nuclei, cytoplasm and plasma membrane. atRA and calcitriol each increased PPC viability and proliferation; atRA additionally decreased PPC apoptosis. Co-addition of atRA and calcitriol had no additive effects on cell viability but did increase ngn3 responses. In conclusion, RAR, RXR and VDR are expressed in human fetal PPCs and PPC proliferation can be promoted by calcitriol, atRA or both together, data valuable for elucidating mechanisms underlying islet development and for developing clinical islet transplantation.
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ABSTRACT: The influence of vitamin D status on insulin secretion and glucose tolerance was studied by a longitudinal design in the rabbit. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests were performed in Dutch rabbits (n = 12) before and after nutritional vitamin D deficiency, characterized by an absence of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, a 50% decrease in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, and a 16% decrease in serum calcium concentrations. Glucose-induced insulin secretion was reduced by 41% as early as 2 months after the start of the vitamin D-deficient diet and was associated with an impairment of glucose tolerance. An iv calcium infusion restored the serum calcium concentration of the vitamin D-deficient rabbits (n = 5), but did not improve glucose-mediated insulin secretion. When these animals received a single ip injection of 100 ng 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 10 h before the glucose test, their insulin responses significantly increased. Supplementation with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 for 2 weeks in another group of rabbits (n = 4) resulted in marked improvement in glucose-stimulated insulin release and glucose tolerance. These results show that vitamin D affects glucose-induced insulin secretion by a mechanism that involves more than its regulating action on serum calcium concentration.Endocrinology 08/1984; 115(1):191-7. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Retinoic acid (RA) nuclear receptors (RARs) are thought to mediate the cellular and molecular effects of RA on a wide variety of tissues. In most cell types, RAR expression remains relatively constant following exposure to RA, while that of RARβ is rapidly induced. In this study, we show that in human neuroblastoma, a cell type exceptionally sensitive to RA-induced differentiation, RAR as well as RARβ is markedly up-regulated by RA treatment. This effect was consistent in all 5 neuroblastoma cell lines tested and was reflected in a 2-to 5-fold increase in receptor mRNA levels as assessed by Northern-blot analysis. Using LA-N-5 human neuroblastoma cells, we found that receptor up-regulation occurred in a time-and dose-dependent fashion with increases in both RAR and β mRNA detectable 1–2 hr after the addition of RA. These inductions were not abrogated by cycloheximide, indicating that protein synthesis was not required for the RA responses. Nuclear run-off experiments combined with Northern-blot analysis of RAR stability directly demonstrated that the up-regulation of RAR mRNA levels reflected an increased rate of transcription without changes in message half-life. These findings, showing direct activation by RA of RAR gene transcription in human neuroblastoma cells, suggest differences in the overall regulation of this receptor from that found in most other RA-inducible tissue.International Journal of Cancer 03/1994; 56(6):840 - 845. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies have indicated that the pancreas has receptors specific for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3] and that 1,25-(OH)2D3 increases insulin secretion in vitamin D-deficient rats. In this study we report that in vitamin D-replete, but calcium-deficient, rats in which 1,25-(OH)2D3 levels are elevated, insulin secretion is not altered. In addition, in in vitro studies 1,25-(OH)2D3 at concentrations of 10(-10)-10(-7) M was consistently found to inhibit insulin secretion from islets of vitamin D-replete rats or from the rat insulinoma beta-cell line RIN 1046-38. The RIN cell line was found to contain both vitamin D receptors and calbindin-D28k (CaBP-D28k) protein and mRNA. In RIN cells, treatment with sodium butyrate (2 mM for 3 days) induces a more islet phenotype, as indicated by increased insulin content and secretion and increased insulin gene expression. 1,25-(OH)2D3 treatment (50-100 nM for 48 or 72 h) had no effect on the enhanced levels of insulin secreted in the presence of butyrate. However, 2 mM sodium butyrate induced CaBP-D28k protein (4-fold; control, 0.8 +/- 0.2; sodium butyrate, 3.5 +/- 0.1 microgram/mg protein) and mRNA (3-fold) in the RIN cell line, in accord with the induction by butyrate of insulin content and secretion and beta-cell differentiation, suggesting a possible role for CaBP-D28k in these processes. Although 1,25-(OH)2D3, unlike butyrate, did not enhance insulin secretion, both 1,25-(OH)2D3 (100 nM) and butyrate (2 mM) inhibited RIN cell growth (to 69% and 28% of the control, respectively), and butyrate and 1,25-(OH)2D3 in combination led to a further inhibition of cell growth (to 13% of the control). In response to 1,25-(OH)2D3 (10 nM for 72 h), vitamin D receptors were up-regulated 313% in RIN cells [control, 37 +/- 2; 1,25-(OH)2D3 treated, 115 +/- 5 fmol/mg protein]. In conclusion, 1) contrary to previous studies in the vitamin D-deficient rat, our findings indicate that 1,25-(OH)2D3 action does not necessarily result in enhanced insulin secretion; 2) inhibition of cell growth and up-regulation of vitamin D receptors by 1,25-(OH)2D3 suggest that parameters in addition to insulin secretion can be affected by 1,25-(OH)2D3 in the beta-cell; 3) the RIN beta-cell line provides a novel in vitro system for studying the effect of the vitamin D endocrine system on pancreatic islet physiology.Endocrinology 05/1994; 134(4):1602-10. · 4.72 Impact Factor