Probing the effect of transport inhibitors on the conformation of the mitochondrial citrate transport protein via a site-directed spin labeling approach

Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, The Chicago Medical School, 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL 60064, USA.
Journal of Bioenergetics (Impact Factor: 3.21). 03/2010; 42(2):99-109. DOI: 10.1007/s10863-010-9280-0
Source: PubMed


The present investigation utilized the site-directed spin labeling method of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to identify the effect of citrate, the natural ligand, and transport inhibitors on the conformation of the yeast mitochondrial citrate transport protein (CTP) reconstituted in liposomal vesicles. Spin label was placed at six different locations within the CTP in order to monitor conformational changes that occurred near each of the transporter's two substrate binding sites, as well as at more distant domains within the CTP architecture. We observed that citrate caused little change in the EPR spectra. In contrast the transport inhibitors 1,2,3-benzenetricarboxylate (BTC), pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), and compound 792949 resulted in spectral changes that indicated a decrease in the flexibility of the attached spin label at each of the six locations tested. The rank order of the immobilizing effect was compound 792949 > PLP > BTC. The four spin-label locations that report on the CTP substrate binding sites displayed the greatest changes in the EPR spectra upon addition of inhibitor. Furthermore, we found that when compound 792949 was added vectorially (i.e., extra- and/or intra-liposomally), the immobilizing effect was mediated nearly exclusively by external reagent. In contrast, upon addition of PLP vectorially, the effect was mediated to a similar extent from both the external and the internal compartments. In combination our data indicate that: i) citrate binding to the CTP substrate binding sites does not alter side-chain and/or backbone mobility in a global manner and is consistent with our expectation that both in the absence and presence of substrate the CTP displays the flexibility required of a membrane transporter; and ii) binding of each of the transport inhibitors tested locked multiple CTP domains into more rigid conformations, thereby exhibiting long-range inter-domain conformational communication. The differential vectorial effects of compound 792949 and PLP are discussed in the context of the CTP homology-modeled structure and potential mechanistic molecular explanations are given.

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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to identify the role of individual amino acid residues in determining the substrate specificity of the yeast mitochondrial citrate transport protein (CTP). Previously, we showed that the CTP contains at least two substrate-binding sites. In this study, utilizing the overexpressed, single-Cys CTP-binding site variants that were functionally reconstituted in liposomes, we examined CTP specificity from both its external and internal surfaces. Upon mutation of residues comprising the more external site, the CTP becomes less selective for citrate with numerous external anions able to effectively inhibit [(14)C]citrate/citrate exchange. Thus, the site 1 variants assume the binding characteristics of a nonspecific anion carrier. Comparison of [(14)C]citrate uptake in the presence of various internal anions versus water revealed that, with the exception of the R189C mutant, the other site 1 variants showed substantial uniport activity relative to exchange. Upon mutation of residues comprising site 2, we observed two types of effects. The K37C mutant displayed a markedly enhanced selectivity for external citrate. In contrast, the other site 2 mutants displayed varying degrees of relaxed selectivity for external citrate. Examination of internal substrates revealed that, in contrast to the control transporter, the R181C variant exclusively functioned as a uniporter. This study provides the first functional information on the role of specific binding site residues in determining mitochondrial transporter substrate selectivity. We interpret our findings in the context of our homology-modeled CTP as it cycles between the outward-facing, occluded, and inward-facing states.
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