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Early onset and slow progression of SCA28, a rare dominant ataxia in a large four-generation family with a novel AFG3L2 mutation

Institute for Human Genetics, University of Luebeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, Luebeck, Germany.
European journal of human genetics: EJHG (Impact Factor: 4.23). 03/2010; 18(8):965-8. DOI: 10.1038/ejhg.2010.40
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ABSTRACT Autosomal dominantly inherited spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders primarily affecting the cerebellum. Genetically, 26 different loci have been identified so far, although the corresponding gene has not yet been determined for 10 of them. Recently, mutations in the ATPase family gene 3-like 2 gene were presented to cause SCA type 28. To define the frequency of SCA28 mutations, we performed molecular genetic analyses in 140 unrelated familial cases with ataxia. Among other variations, we found a novel missense mutation at an evolutionarily conserved amino-acid position using a single-strand conformation polymorphism approach, followed by DNA sequencing. This amino-acid exchange p.E700K was detected in a four-generation German family and was not observed in a survey of 400 chromosomes from healthy control individuals.

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    • "The nature of the identified mutations is suggestive that they may trigger pathogenesis by both dominant-negative and loss of function mechanisms. A p.E700K missense mutation within the AFG3L2 gene has been identified in a German family with early onset and slow progression (Edener et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 28 is an autosomal dominant form of cerebellar ataxia (ADCA) caused by mutations in AFG3L2, a gene that encodes a subunit of the mitochondrial m-AAA protease. We screened 366 primarily Caucasian ADCA families, negative for the most common triplet expansions, for point mutations in AFG3L2 using DHPLC. Whole-gene deletions were excluded in 300 of the patients, and duplications were excluded in 129 patients. We found six missense mutations in nine unrelated index cases (9/366, 2.6%): c.1961C>T (p.Thr654Ile) in exon 15, c.1996A>G (p.Met666Val), c.1997T>G (p.Met666Arg), c.1997T>C (p.Met666Thr), c.2011G>A (p.Gly671Arg), and c.2012G>A (p.Gly671Glu) in exon 16. All mutated amino acids were located in the C-terminal proteolytic domain. In available cases, we demonstrated the mutations segregated with the disease. Mutated amino acids are highly conserved, and bioinformatic analysis indicates the substitutions are likely deleterious. This investigation demonstrates that SCA28 accounts for ∼3% of ADCA Caucasian cases negative for triplet expansions and, in extenso, to ∼1.5% of all ADCA. We further confirm both the involvement of AFG3L2 gene in SCA28 and the presence of a mutational hotspot in exons 15-16. Screening for SCA28, is warranted in patients who test negative for more common SCAs and present with a slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia accompanied by oculomotor signs.
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