Dietary iron restriction or iron chelation protects from diabetes and loss of beta-cell function in the obese (ob/ob lep-/-) mouse.
ABSTRACT Iron overload can cause insulin deficiency, but in some cases this may be insufficient to result in diabetes. We hypothesized that the protective effects of decreased iron would be more significant with increased beta-cell demand and stress. Therefore, we treated the ob/ob mouse model of type 2 diabetes with an iron-restricted diet (35 mg/kg iron) or with an oral iron chelator. Control mice were fed normal chow containing 500 mg/kg iron. Neither treatment resulted in iron deficiency or anemia. The low-iron diet significantly ameliorated diabetes in the mice. The effect was long lasting and reversible. Ob/ob mice on the low-iron diet exhibited significant increases in insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function, consistent with the phenotype in mouse models of hereditary iron overload. The effects were not accounted for by changes in weight or feeding behavior. Treatment with iron chelation had a more dramatic effect, allowing the ob/ob mice to maintain normal glucose tolerance for at least 10.5 wk despite no effect on weight. Although dietary iron restriction preserved beta-cell function in ob/ob mice fed a high-fat diet, the effects on overall glucose levels were less apparent due to a loss of the beneficial effects of iron on insulin sensitivity. Beneficial effects of iron restriction were minimal in wild-type mice on normal chow but were apparent in mice on high-fat diets. We conclude that, even at "normal" levels, iron exerts detrimental effects on beta-cell function that are reversible with dietary restriction or pharmacotherapy.
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ABSTRACT: Diabetic nephropathy is both a common and a severe complication of diabetes mellitus. Iron is an essential trace element. However, excess iron is toxic, playing a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. The present study aimed to determine the extent of the interaction between iron and type 2 diabetes in the kidney. Male rats were randomly assigned into four groups: control, iron (300-mg/kg iron dextran), diabetes (a single dose of intraperitoneal streptozotocin), and iron + diabetes group. Iron supplementation resulted in a higher liver iron content, and diabetic rats showed higher serum glucose compared with control rats, which confirmed the model as iron overload and diabetic. It was found that iron + diabetes group showed a greater degree of kidney pathological changes, a remarkable reduction in body weight, and a significant increase in relative kidney weight and iron accumulation in rat kidneys compared with iron or diabetes group. Moreover, malondialdehyde values in the kidney were higher in iron + diabetes group than in iron or diabetes group, sulfhydryl concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity were decreased by the diabetes and iron + diabetes groups, and protein oxidation and nitration levels were higher in the kidney of iron + diabetes group as compared to iron or diabetes group. However, iron supplementation did not elevate the glucose level of a diabetic further. These results suggested that iron increased the diabetic renal injury probably through increased oxidative/nitrative stress and reduced antioxidant capacity instead of promoting a rise in blood sugar levels; iron might be a potential cofactor of diabetic nephropathy, and strict control of iron would be important under diabetic state.Biological Trace Element Research 07/2014; · 1.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent EU legislation has introduced endocrine disrupting properties as a hazard-based "cut-off" criterion for the approval of active substances as pesticides and biocides. Currently, no specific science-based approach for the assessment of substances with endocrine disrupting properties has been agreed upon, although this new legislation provides interim criteria based on classification and labelling. Different proposals for decision making on potential endocrine disrupting properties in human health risk assessment have been developed by the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) and other regulatory bodies. All these frameworks, although differing with regard to hazard characterization, include a toxicological assessment of adversity of the effects, the evaluation of underlying modes/mechanisms of action in animals and considerations concerning the relevance of effects to humans. Three options for regulatory decision making were tested upon 39 pesticides for their applicability and to analyze their potential impact on the regulatory status of active substances that are currently approved for use in Europe: Option 1, based purely on hazard identification (adversity, mode of action, and the plausibility that both are related); Option 2, based on hazard identification and additional elements of hazard characterisation (severity and potency); Option 3, based on the interim criteria laid down in the recent EU pesticides legislation. Additionally, the data analysed in this study were used to address the questions, which parts of the endocrine system were affected by ED most frequently, which studies were the most sensitive in detection of ED effects and whether no observed adverse effect levels were observed for substance with ED properties. The results demonstrate that a combination of criteria for hazard identification with additional criteria of hazard characterization allows prioritising and differentiating between substances with regard to their regulatory concern. It is proposed to integrate these elements into a decision matrix to be used within a weight of evidence approach for the toxicological categorisation of relevant endocrine disruptors and to consider all parts of the endocrine system for regulatory decision making on endocrine disruption.Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 09/2014; 70(3). · 2.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Iron overload can lead to cytotoxicity, and it is a risk factor for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We conjectured that iron overload-induced neurotoxicity might be associated with oxidative stress and the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/ARE signaling pathway. As an in vitro cellular model of diabetic peripheral neuropathy, PC12 cells exposed to high glucose concentration were used in this study. PC12 cells were cultured with ferric ammonium citrate at different concentrations to create iron overload. PC12 cells cultured in ferric ammonium citrate under high glucose concentration had significantly low cell viability, a high rate of apoptosis, and elevated reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde levels. These changes were dependent on ferric ammonium citrate concentration. Nrf2 mRNA and protein expression in the ferric ammonium citrate groups were inhibited markedly in a dose-dependent manner. All changes could be inhibited by addition of deferoxamine. These results indicate that iron overload aggravates oxidative stress injury in neural cells under high glucose concentration and that the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway might play an important role in this process.Neural Regeneration Research 12/2013; 8(36):3423-33. · 0.23 Impact Factor