Adipose Stem Cells for Soft Tissue Regeneration
ABSTRACT Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can be isolated from human adipose tissue with the exceptional potential for differentiation into mature adipocytes. Utilization of this system is very promising in developing improved techniques to repair soft tissue defects. Current reconstructive procedures, especially after trauma and oncological surgery, transfer autologous soft tissue grafts having limitations. However, ASCs offer the ability to either generate soft tissue with no donor-site morbidity (with the exception of a minor loss of adipose tissue) or enhance the viability and durability of other grafts. This review will discuss the relevant properties of human adult adipose-derived stem cells for the regeneration of adipose tissue. Discussion will focus on the biology of ASCs, cell delivery vehicles/scaffolds useful in applying ASCs as a therapy, and suitable IN VIVO animal models for studying adipose tissue engineering. Also included is a description of the current clinical studies with ASCs in Europe and Asia.
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ABSTRACT: Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are a subset of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that possess many of the same regenerative properties as other MSCs. However, the ubiquitous presence of ADSCs and their ease of access in human tissue have led to a burgeoning field of research. The plastic surgeon is uniquely positioned to harness this technology because of the relative frequency in which they perform procedures such as liposuction and autologous fat grafting. This review examines the current landscape of ADSC isolation and identification, summarizes the current applications of ADSCs in the field of plastic surgery, discusses the risks associated with their use, current barriers to universal clinical translatability, and surveys the latest research which may help to overcome these obstacles. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 11/2014; 19(1). DOI:10.1111/jcmm.12425 · 3.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that are obtained from abundant adipose tissue, adherent on plastic culture flasks, can be expanded in vitro , and have the capacity to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Unlike bone marrowderived MSCs, ASCs can be obtained from abundant adipose tissue by a minimally invasive procedure, which results in a high number of cells. Therefore, ASCs are promising for regenerating tissues and organs damaged by injury and diseases. This article reviews the implications of ASCs in tissue regeneration.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the physiological effects of electrospun tropoelastin scaffolds as therapeutic adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) delivery vehicles for the treatment of full-thickness dermal wounds. Approach: Using the process of electrospinning, several prototype microfiber scaffolds were created with tropoelastin. Initial testing of scaffold biocompatibility was performed in vitro through ADSC culture, followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for assessment of ADSC attachment, morphology, and new extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. The wound healing effects of ADSC-seeded scaffolds were then evaluated in a murine dermal excisional wound model. Results: For the in vitro study, SEM revealed exceptional biocompatibility of electrospun tropoelastin for ADSCs. In the wound-healing study, ADSC-treated groups demonstrated significantly enhanced wound closure and epithelial thickness compared to controls. Innovation: This is the first report on the use of tropoelastin-based biomaterials as delivery vehicles for therapeutic ADSCs. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that tropoelastin-based ADSC delivery vehicles significantly accelerate wound healing compared to controls that represent the current clinical standard of care. Furthermore, the unique mechanical and biochemical characteristics of tropoelastin may favor its use over other biological or synthetic scaffolds for the treatment of certain pathologies due to its unique intrinsic mechanical properties.05/2014; 3(5):367-375. DOI:10.1089/wound.2013.0513